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Difficulty Separating environmental from genetic influences.
We that aggressive parent have aggressive children and shy parents have shy children. Brothers are both the same. This tell us that it is genetics, but it could also be environmental because their parents raised them in an environment that they have created. (ex) Children of inverted parents grow up in a quiet house so they too may be inverted.
Twin Studies method for determining genetics vs environment
Most popular method. Mono zygotic = from same egg. Dizygotic= from different eggs, no more alike than brothers or sisters. If there is gentic influences on personality we expect MZ to be more like each other than DZ because MZ have same genes.
- MZ DZ
- Env. Same Same
- Gen. Same Different
Adoption study in teasing apart environmental and genetic influences.
MZ twins share genes but if one is adopted and have a different environment. Than we can assume if they have different personalities that environment plays a role.
Problems of twin studies.
Adopted twins are usually put into a home environment that is similar to their parents'. Misleading assumptions. Do parents treat adopted child the same way as their biological children?
Concept of non-shared environment
Twin studies that suggested and preferred arousal level.
(Heritability of Extraversion)
Comparing MZ twins with DZ twins. More MZ twins are extraversion than DZ twins. This tells us that extraversion is usually inherited by genetics, not environment. Separted MZ twins were also found to be the same (extraversion- introversion) when growing up in different environments.
Extraversion and preferred arousal levels. (Library Study)
One room to study was quiet and single desks. There other had sofas and there was small conversations. Extraverts were found to study in the sofa room. Introvert were more likely to study in the quiet desks. Extraverts like the opportunity to socialize and introverts don't want to be distracted.
Extraversion and happiness.
Extraverts are found socializing and introverts are found alone. Who is happier? Extraverts find themselves happier and subjective well-being.
2 reasons why extraverts are generally more happy than introverts.
- 1) More friends and interact more often. Social interaction is related to feelings of well-being. Friends serve as a buffer against stress. More likely to seek out friends when they had a problem.
- 2) They may be more sensitive to rewards than introverts are. A good grades = more pleased than introverts. Spelling tests words like (mourning and morning) (peace and pice) Extraverts were more likely to write down the happier words.
However they are more impulsive and this can create problems.
The theory of Parental investment ("The cheap sperm and the precious egg")
As members of a species, we are concerned about reproducing and passing our genes along to the next generation., because of this concern we select mates who are likely to be a part of successful reproduction and effective child raising.
What men look for in women.
Beauty, younger women (because of better fertility), more likely than women to use physical attractiveness. The more attractive the more effort is out into relationship.
What women see in men
Resources and commitment, able to provide for their offspring, older, dependable, ambiguous, and career oriented. More willing to give up attractiveness than economic status.