Nursing Theories and Conceptual Frameworks (Chapter 3)
_____ has been defined as a supposition or system of ideas that is proposed to explain a given phenomoenon.
What are the Metaparadigm for Nursing?
Theoretical work in nursing focused on articulating relationships among four major concepts: person, environment, health, and nursing.
1. Person or client: the recipient of nursing care (includes individuals, families, groups, and communities).
2. Environment: the internal and external surroundings that affec the client. This includes people in the physical environment, such as families, friends, and significant others.
3. Health: the degree of wellnes or well-being that the client eperiences.
4. Nursing: the attributes, characteristics, and actions of the nurse providing care on behalf of, or in conjunction with, the client.
What was Florence Nightingale contribution to Nursing?
Considered the first nurse theorist, defined nursing as " the act of utilizing the environment of the patient to assist him in his recovery."
She linked health with five environmental factors:
1. pure or fresh air
2. pure water
3. efficient drainage
5. light, especially direct sunlight
Deficiencies in these five factors produced lack of health or illness.
Encironmental factors attain significance with sanitation conditions in the hospitals. Nightingale stressed the importance of keeping the client warm, maintaining a noise-free environment, and attending to the client's diet in terms of assessing intake, timeliness of the food, and its effect on the persom.
What was Martha Rogers contribution to Nursing?
She first presented her theory of unitary human beings in 1970. It contains complex conceptualizations related to multiple scientific disciplines.
Rogers views the person as an irreducible whole, the whole being greater than the sum of its parts. Whole is differentiated from holistic, the latter often used to mean only the sum of all parts.
Humans are dynamic energy fields in conttinuous exchange with environmental fields, both of which are infinite.
According to Rogers, unitary man: is an irreducible, four-dimensional energy field identified by pattern, manifests characteristics different from the sum of the parts, interacts continuously and creatively with the environment, behaves as a totalit, as a sentient being, participates creatively in change.
Nurses applying Rogers's theory:
1. focus on the person's wholeness
2. seek to promote symphonic interaction between the two energy fields to strengthen the coherence and integrity of the person
3. coordinate the numan field with the rythmicities of the environmental field
4. direct and redirect patterns of interaction between the two energy fields to promote maximum health potential.
Nurses' use of noncontact therapeutic touch is based on the concept of human energy fields.
What was Madeleine Leininger contribution to Nursing?
Her views on transcultural nursing. she states that care is the essence of nursing andthe dominant, distinctive, and unifying feature of nursing. Emphasizes that human caring, although a univeral phenomenon, varies among cultures in its expressions, processes, and patterns; it is largely culturally derived.
Emphasizes that health and care are influenced by elements of the social structure, such as technology, cultural vales, political and legal factors, kinship and social systems, cultural values, political and legal factors, economic factors, and educational factors.
Leininger presents Three intervention modes:
1. culture care preseration and maintenance
2. culture care accommodation, negotiation, or both
3. culture care restructuring and repatterning
"searches for comprehensive and holistic care data relying on social structure, worldview, and multipe factors in a cuture in order to get a holistic knowledge based about care"