ART 109 OCEANIA

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kjel
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181737
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ART 109 OCEANIA
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2012-11-05 11:09:43
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ART 109 OCEANIA
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ART 109 OCEANIA
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  1. mbis pole
    [culture, details]
    • Asmat
    • carved pole to serve as vessel for wandering spirit
    • S-shapes -- ancestors, curved tail of cuscus, boar's tusk
    • beak shapes -- birds who eat fruit --> head hunting
    • spirit canoe  -- for proper spirit burial "uramon"
    • praying mantis --> head hunting
  2. The Jipae ritual
    • Asmat
    • men, costumed, dancing thru the night, at dawn get "attacked" and symbolically killed.  Spirits of dead ancestors driven to ancestral homeland
  3. spirit canoes
    [name, culture, use]
    • Asmat
    • "uramon"
    • initiation rite... young boys secluded for months, then must crawl over canoe .... boy --> man ---- scarification
  4. war shields
    [name, culture, use]
    • Asmat
    • "jamasj"
    • psychological power embedded within
    • named after ancestors - bestows holder with more power
    • owner more associated with shield than carver
    • at death shield was broken and buried w/ owner
    • (except in north, passed down to son)
  5. Asmat creation story
    • Myth of Fumeripits
    • Fumeripits, the creator, drowns in river
    • bird try to revive, no luck, try medicine, no luck, tries again
    • Fumeripits awakes, "I am Fumeripits"
    • carves man and woman from wood
    • beats drum to bring to life
    • aligator broken up, becomes all else
  6. mbis poles -- steps in creation
    • 1. pledge to avenge death
    • 2. provide spiritual vessel
    • headhunting takes life of villager
    • elders meet to put spitir to rest
    • men hunt mangrove tree, kill and skin it
    • bring tree back to village, women yell at tree in victory
    • women promise sexual favors for success
    • men in special workroom -- poles lined up an displayed (equals promise to avenge death)
    • boasting and dancing of mock battle
    • left to decompose with sago plants
  7. Oceania --- 3 divisions
    • melanesia -- black islands, incl Papua New Guinea
    • micronesia -- northern
    • polynesia -- Hawaii and south, Easter Island, New Zealand
  8. warfare in Pacific societies
    3 commonalities
    • 1. vehicle for male prestige
    • 2. appropriation of the other group's life energy
    • 3. moment in the cycle of creative and destructive exchange
  9. fighting in Oceania; 4 reasons
    • 1. to secure dominance
    • 2. siezing land and slaves
    • 3. vengence
    • 4. demand for sacrificial victims
  10. the men's house
    [culture, name, 3 key functions, etc.]
    • Abelam, "korambo"
    • 1. clubhouse for clans in village
    • 2. place of initiation of male youth
    • 3. storage place for sacred items

    • cultural center, center of of spiritual and political power
    • where spirits reside & elders meet
    • front of house decorated; top-witch, mid-male spirits, bot-copulation
  11. Abelam; yams; cult of yam central to:
    (5)
    • 1. political life
    • 2. moral values
    • 3. rules of behavior/ conduct
    • 4. ritual
    • 5. myth
  12. "incestuous consumption"
    grower of largest yam not allowed to eat it, "authorship"
  13. Easter Island, when first inhabited and by which chief, where did they come from?
    5th century AD, Chief Hotu Matu'a, from Marquesas Is.
  14. moai
    importance (3)
    • ceremonial centers
    • made in honor of fallen chief
    • stand guard over the living
  15. Easter Island timeline
    first 2 periods and 2 later significant years
    • 1. ahu/moai phase --> 1000-1500AD
    • 2. decadent phase --> 1500-1722
    • 3. Dutch explorers --> 1722
    • 4. Chilean citizenship --> 1966
  16. E.I. egg and bird symbolism
    • bird:
    • givers of omens
    • messengers
    • guides
    • vehicles of spirits of gods and dead
    • egg: cosmic fertility and power
  17. Birdman cult
    • solution to redistribution of resorces
    • leave from Mata Ngarau, run down cliff w/ reed floaters, swim to Motu Nui islet, find Sooty tern egg (send by gods), return to E.I., winner ruler for one year
  18. mana (what, who, how) + art
    • spiritual power, resides in head "sacred power"
    • chiefs, top officials, nobility
    • increased by heroic deeds and initiations
    • art:  based on quality of mana held; materials, artist processes, used/worn by someone w/ mana
  19. Rapa Nui society (3classes)
    • Ariki:  aristocracy of ranked hereditary chiefs
    • Hurumanu: common people
    • Kio:  lower ranking group
  20. moai head piece
    "pukao"
  21. ariki mau
    E.I. highest official in Miru; greatest mana power
  22. kavakava
    E.I. new moai figure carved "with ribs" during 16th century/decadent phase
  23. Routledge expedition
    Katherine Routledge, British archaeologist, departed for island in 1913; first to study island; from March 1914 to August 1915
  24. Makemake
    E.I. (Rapa Nui) god who created man
  25. location of Asmat
    Irian Jaya
  26. tangata-manu
    birdman winner title
  27. ahu
    Rapa Nui sacred platform

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