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What is population?
the collection of all outcomes, responses, measurements, or counts that are of interest.

What is a sample?
a subset of the population

What is a parameter?
a numerical dscription of a population characteristic

What is a statistic?
A numerical description of a sample characteristic

the average grade on the midterm exam in a certain math class of 50 students was an 88.
Parameter, because the data set of all 50 midterm exams in the math class is a population.

A survey of 42 out of hundreds in a dining hall showed that 17 enjoyed their meal.
Statistic, because the data set of 42 people in a dining hall is a sample.

A sample of professors is selected and it is found that 25% own a computer.
Statistic because the value is a numerical measurement describing a characteric of a sample.

What is a descriptive statistics?
involves organizing, summarizing, and displaying data

what is inferential statistics
involves using sample data to draw conclusions about a population

Suppose a survy of 579 women in the US found that 67% are the primary investor in their household. Which part of the survery represents the discriptive branch of statistics?
67% of women in the sample are the primary investor in their household.

Suppose a survy of 579 women in the US found that 67% are the primary investor in their household. Which part of the survery represents the inference based on the results of this survey?
There is an association between US women and being the primary investor in their household.

Suppose that a study based on a sample from a targeted population shows that people who own a fax machine have more money than people who do not. Make an inference based on the results of this study.
People who own a fax machine have more money than people who do not.

Suppose that a study based on a sample from a targeted population shows that people who own a fax machine have more money than people who do not. What might this inference incorrectly imply?
This inference may incorrectly imply that if you owned a fax machine, you would have more money than if you did not.

Suppose that a study based on a sample from a targeted population shows that senior citizens who live in a certain state have a better memory than senior citizens who do not live in that state. Make an inference based on the results of this study?
Senior citizens who live in that state have a better memory than those that do not live in that state.

Suppose that a study based on a sample from a targeted population shows that senior citizens who live in a certain state have a better memory than senior citizens who do not live in that state. What might this inference incorrectly imply?
This inference may incorrectly imply that if you live in that state, then you will have a better memory than if you did not.

What is qualitative data?
Consists of attributes, labels, or nonnumerical entries.

What is quantitative data?
Numerical measurements or counts.

What is nominal level of measurement?
Qualitative data only, categorized using names, labels, or qualities, and no mathematical computations can be made.

What is ordinal level of measurement?
Qualitative or quantitative data, data can be arranged in order, and differences between data entries is not meaningful.

What is data at the interval level?
can be put in a category, put in order, and you can find differences between values. therefore, more types of calculations can be performed with the data at the interval level than with data at the nominal level.

Determine whether the variable is qualitative or quantitative? Favorite color
Qualitative

Determine whether the variable is qualitative or quantitative? Number of students at a university?
Quantitative

The region of a country with the highest level of food production for the past six years is shown below: Southern, Southeast, Northern, Northwest, Southwest, and Northeast. Determine whether the data is quantitative or qualitative?
Qualitative because the labels (regions) are nonnumerical labels.

The region of a country with the highest level of food production for the past six years is shown below: Southern, Southeast, Northern, Northwest, Southwest, and Northeast. What is the data set's level of measurement?
Nominal  no computations can be made

The temperatures (in C) of water smples taken at various depths in a large lake are shown below. 18.4, 20.9, 19.8, 18.6, 21.1, 20.9, 17.6, 21.4, 20.9. Are the data qualitative or quantitative?
quantitative

The temperatures (in C) of water smples taken at various depths in a large lake are shown below. 18.4, 20.9, 19.8, 18.6, 21.1, 20.9, 17.6, 21.4, 20.9. What is the data set's level of measurement?
Interval

The following appear on a physician's intake form. Identify the level of measurement of the data? a. change in health (scale of 5 to 5), b. height, c. year of birth, d. disabilities. What is the level of measurement for Change in health?
Ordinal

The following appear on a physician's intake form. Identify the level of measurement of the data? a. change in health (scale of 5 to 5), b. height, c. year of birth, d. disabilities.
WHat is the level of measurement for Height?
Ratio

The following appear on a physician's intake form. Identify the level of measurement of the data? a. change in health (scale of 5 to 5), b. height, c. year of birth, d. disabilities. What is the level of measurement for "year of birth"?
Interval

The following appear on a physician's intake form. Identify the level of measurement of the data? a. change in health (scale of 5 to 5), b. height, c. year of birth, d. disabilities. what is the level of measurement for "Disabilities?
nominal

What is the ratio level of measurement?
Similar to interval level, zero entry is an inherent zero (implies "none"), a ratio of two data values can be formed, one data value can be expressed as a multiple of another.

Define systematic sample?
selects members at a regular interval fromĀ a random starting point.

What is a stratified sample?
members of the population are divided into two or more subsets, called strata. A sample is then randomly selected from each of the strata. This ensures that members of each group within the population will be sampled.

WHat is cluster sample?
the method of selecting a cluster sample is to select all of the members of one group or cluster.

The method for selecting a stratified sample is to order a population in some way and then select members of the population at regular intervals. true or false
false  the method for selecting a systematic sample is to order a population in some way and then select members of the population at regular intervals.

A study of the effect on the tast of a popular soda made with less carbonation is what?
an experiment

A study of how fast a fire would spread through the canopy of a forest is what?
simulation

A television station asks its viewers to call in their opinion regarding the variety of sports programming is what?
Convience  easily obtained.

To determine customer opinion of their pricing, greyhound lines randomly selects 30 busses during a certain week and surveys all passengers on the busses. What type of sampling is used?
Cluster

Sony wants to administer a satisfaction survey to its current customers. Using their customer database, the company randomly selects 60 customers and asks them about their level of satisfaction with the company. What type of sampling is used?
Simple random

To estimate the percentage of defects in a recent manufacturing batch, a quality control manager at IBM selects every 14th computer that comes off the assembly line starting with the fourth until she obtains a sample of 110 computers. What type of sampling is used?
systematic  the every kth chosen

To determine her water pressure, Keri divides up her day into three parts: morning, afternoon, and evening. She then measures her water pressure at 4 randomly selected times during each part of the day. What type of sampling is used?
stratified  grouped first  strata then selected from that strata

Determine whether you would take a census or use a smpling to collect data for the study below: the average amount of savings of the 20,000 employees of a company. Would you take a census or use a sampling?
Sampling

Determine if the survey question is biased. If the question is biased, suggest a better wording. Why is eating cake bad for you? Is the question biased?
yes  better question is: How do you think eating cake affects your health?

Determine whether the survey question is biased. If the question is biased, suggest a better wording. Why is eating eggs bad for you?
Yes biased  better wording How do you think eating eggs affects your health?

