Asians crossed Beringia. 1490s hundreds of tribes, 50-75 million people. Hunters and gatherers. Came for food.
Act of Religious Toleration
(1649) First colonial law giving religious freedom to Christians. Died if you denied divinity of Jesus. Excluded non-Christian faith.
Italian sailor. The New World was named after him.
(Church of England) Founded by Henry VII to allow divorce. Protestants. Ruled by monarch instead of Pope.
Antinomianism. Banished in 1637 with followers. Portsmouth, Rhode Island.
God communicates directly, why follow religious leaders if we’re predestined.
Aztecs (Mexico) 1428-1521
Used Chinampas “Raised bed gardens” Conquered by Hernan Cortes
Bartholomeu Dias (1488)
Sailed around the coast of southern Africa.
Beringia (40,000 years ago)
Land bridge connecting Siberia and Alaska
Two house government. (Representative for common people, rich people)
Legend of Spanish being horrible people. TRUTH: built actual empires, tried to help Natives, allowed Natives to intermarry.
Prohibited “ungodly activity”, stage plays, playing cards, dice games, and excessive hilarity.
Believed in predestination, the conversion experience, and that God chooses visible saints “the elect”
Captain John Smith (1608)
Leader, Got settlers to farm in Jamestown.
Royal colony. Plantations. NORTH: Small farms (tobacco, tar, turpentine), few slaves, difficult to travel. SOUTH: Large plantations (rice, indigo), waterways for easy transportation (Charleston seaport)
Charties of Liberties and Privileges (NY) (1683)
Elected assembly, freedom of worship, trial by jury.
Maryland and Virginia. Diseases. Few women with young gentlemen. CHANGES: Most populated, immunities.
(1492) Italian. Sailed for Spain to find route to India, but discovered America. Canary Islands -> Bahamas Brought permanent interaction between Europeans and Native Americans
The exchange of goods between Native Americans and Europeans. NATIVES: Beans, corn, sweet/white potatoes, tomatoes, tobacco, syphilis. EUROPEANS: Sugar canes, blue grasses, pigs, horses, the wheel, iron, guns. Measles, small pox
Puritan, Fundamental Orders of Connecticut. Charter in 1662.
God revealing when you are going to heaven or hell.
European decent, born in colonies.
Europeans going to other regions to spread Christianity. Opened their eyes to new things and got them thinking.
Delaware (New Sweden)
Swedish Lutherans. Fought with Peter Stuyvesant. Given to William Penn for access to Atlantic Ocean.
Duke of York (James II)
Got New York from the king in 1664 and became governor. Ordered new tax without representation.
Finance, shipping, trade unequaled. African slave trade contributed to Dutch colonization in Americas.
Edict of Nantes (1598)
Gave rights to huguenots.
Queen. Protestants vs. Catholics. Protestants won! Created problems with Spain and France because they’re Catholic.
Spain king gave land/Natives to settlers. They had to take care of them, teach them Spanish, and Catholicism.
French. Missionary. Explored Great Lakes and Northern Mississippi River.
Circumnavigated the world.
(1540-1542) Southwest America.
Fransico Pizarro (1532)
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
First written constitution. Elected legislature, choosing governor, term limits, fair taxation. Model for later state constitutions.
George Calvert, Lord Baltimore
Founder of Maryland
Democratic, independent minded, not very aristocratic. Refuge for debt prisoners. Buffer between South Carolina and Florida. Became royal colony in 1752. Plantations and slavery.
Giovanni Verrazano (1524)
French. Sent to find “northwest passage” –a body of water going through America to Asia (Did not exist)
Great Law of Pennsylvania
Appointed governor, elected legislature, religious freedom, fair trials, human punishments, education.
Great Puritan Migration (1630s)
20,000 more settlers fleeing persecution.
Large Spanish estates with crops and herds.
Attacked immigrants by giving 50 acres of land to those paying for their own transportation and plantation owners paying for others.
English. Claimed New York for the Dutch.
Wanted to divorce his wife because she wouldn’t produce a son. Pope wouldn’t allow it and he founded the Anglican church (Church of England).
Hernan Cortes (1521)
Conquered Aztecs by befriending their enemies.
Hernando de Soto (1539-1542)
Explored Florida and Missippi.
House of Burgesses (1619)
Consisted of governor, his council, and 2 representatives from each Virginia county.
French Catholics converted to Calvinists. Fled to Cuba.
Incas (Peru) 1400s-1500s
Road builders. Conquered by Francisco Pizarro.
People worked for a certain amount of years for landowners to receive a home.
Jacques Cartier (1534-1543)
French. Claimed Canada. St. Lawrence Valley.
Founded Savannah in 1733 and became acting governor.
Men with military background and gentlemen worked for joint-stock company. Harsh conditions (Swampy, limited supplies, starving times) Had problems with Native Americans. John Smith and John Rolfe.
“Black Robes” Catholic missionaries. Made of geographers and explorers.
John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto) 1497-1498
Sailed for England on northeast coast.
Governor of Massachusetts
Juan Ponce de Leon (1513)
Leif Erickson (1000)
Leader of Vikings (Greenland/Iceland) They went places, took over, and returned home.
King of France
"Corn" Staple crop
Sailed to China and wrote about his experience in a book.
Martin Luther (1517)
Wrote 95 theses to criticize the Catholic Church and their indulgences. He was protected by Germany.
Founded by Lord Baltimore. Safe haven for Catholics. Tobacco based. “Act of Toleration”
Mason Dixon Line
Borders of Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware, and West Virginia. Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon. Border dispute. Symbolically used as a boundary between free states and slave states.
Massachusetts bay Colony (1630)
Boston-“City Upon a Hill” Larger than Plymouth. More families/tradesman. “Great Migration” Economics- fur, fishing, ship building
Yucatan Peninsula 300-900
Agreement for self-government. Majority rules. Lead to town meetings.
1 parent European, 1 parent Native American
“Bread Basket Colonies” New York, Delaware, Pennsylvania New Jersey. Super diverse. Grew wheat and corn. Moderate size farms. ECONOMY: grain crops, fur, iron, timber. EDUCATION: Public schools in Pennsylvania, church supported schools.
Journey between Africa and the New World in the Triangular trade. 20% death rate of Africans.
1 parent European, 1 parent African
New England Colonies
Rhode Island, Connecticut, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire. FARMS: Small, subsistence, diversity of crops. ECONOMY: Furs, fishing, timber, ship building, distilling molasses. EDUCATION: Public schools, Harvard- (1636) Trained ministers, all towns in Massachusetts had to have a writing class (1642)
Run by John Mason for trading/ fishing. Separated from Massachusetts by King Charles II
New Netherlands. Duke of York. George Carteret and Lord John Berkley. Bought by Quakers in 1664.
Wanted to “purify” the English Church.
Dutch/English. Hudson Valley estates. Bring 50 tenants and you get one.
Born in Europe.
William Penn. Quaker haven. “Holy Experiment” Philadelphia: “City of Brotherly Love” Friends with Natives. Large and diverse. Great Law of Pennsylvania. Blue Laws.
Harsh governor of New York (replaced by James I) Gave New York to the Duke of York.
Metacom. Native American. Chief of Wampanoags. United tribes against settlers. “King Phillip’s War” Sent the armada.
Bought Manhattan from Natives for a box of trinkets ($24)
Separatists. “Squatters” Went to Holland for religious freedom (1608) Didn’t like it, sailed for Virginia, landed in Plymouth. 102 people, half died from harsh winter. Succeeded from fur trade, fishing, and lumber.
Large farms with slaves/indentured servants. Mostly in southern colonies.
Town where the Pilgrims settled.
Wife of John Rolfe. Helped with tobacco expansion.
Sailed arounf Africa to China so they didn't have to pay middle easterners to go through the silk road.
Power of the Purse
Power to tax and spend public money
Native Americans. Became extinct in 1685. Powatan Wars (1614, 1644) Natives were banished after defeated by English.
Your destiny was chosen by God and there’s nothing you can do to change it.
Use power to search for riches and spread Catholicism.
Germany, England, France, Holland revolted against the Pope's power in Rome.
Society of friends. Non-violence. There’s a little God in everyone. Jailed b.c of challenge to authority.
The Carolinas, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Georgia.
Roger Williams. Anne Hutchinson. Religious/political tolerance. Safe haven for unorthodox faiths. Squatters until they got their land.
Roanoke (The Lost City)
Disappeared mysteriously. Supply ships were delayed by Spanish Armada and the people must have died off. “Croatian”- word found carved in a tree. Virginia Dare was the first child born in America.
Robert La Selle
"Sun King" Founded Louisianna.
Freedom of religion, separation of church and state. Equal basis with Natives.
Samuel Champlain (1608)
French. Founded Quebec. “Father of France” Got people settled down. Became enemy of Iroquois.
English “pirates” sponsored by government. Attacked Spanish ships.
Wanted completely different church independent of royal control. Left England for religious freedom. Included pilgrims.
Sir Francis Drake
Smuggler "Sea Dog"
Sir John Hawkins
Smuggler "Sea Dog"
Sir Walter Raleigh
Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia. FARMS: Small subsistence farmers. Plantations. Cash crops- tobacco, rice, indigo. ECONOMY: Naval stores, pitch, tar, turpentine. EDUCATION: Few schools, rich had private tutors or sent children north. William and Mary- (1693) Second oldest college in Virginia.
Philip II. English vs. Spanish. Spanish defeated 1588. Went nearly bankrupt. English had strong navy and nationalism. “sea dogs” attacked the Spanish ships.
One of the native tribes that taught Pilgrims to hunt and farm corn. Interpreter for the Europeans.