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what are the three perspectives when studying the relation between brain and behavioral development?
- Structural development
- Behavioral development
- Factors that infulence both Structure and Behavioral Development. Ex.- language, injury
What are the Prenatal Stages?
- Zygote: Fertilization to 2 weeks
- Embryo: 2 to 8 weeks
- Fetus: 9 weeks to birth
Thickened region of the ectodermal layer that gives rise to the neural tube
Structure in the early stage of brain development from which the brain and spinal cord develop
Gross Development of the Human NS
Day 49-Day 60-Day 100-7 months-9 months
- Day 49: Embryo begins to resemble a miniature person
- Day 60: Sexual differentiation (Genitals and brain regions)
- Day 100: Brain looks distinctly human
- 7 Months: Gyri and sulci begin to form
- 9 Months: Brain looks like an adult brain
Neural Stem Cell
A self-renewing multipotential cell that gives rise to neurons and glia
Lining of neural stem cells surrounding the ventricles in adults
Precursor cell derived from a stem cell; it migrates and produces a neuron or glial cell
Product of a progenitor cell that gives rise to different types of neurons.
Product of a progenitor cell that gives rise to different types of glial cells
A chemical compound that acts to support growth and differentiation in developing neurons
The mitotic division of nonneuronal cells to produce neurons
The massive movements of nerve cells and their precursors to establish distinct nerve cell populations.
Cells are formed into distinctive types of neurons or glial cells.
The establishment of synaptic connections as axons and dendrites grow
The selective death of many nerve cells
The loss of some synapses and development of others, to refine synaptic connections.
- Exposure to drugs or toxins during pregnancy that causes side efects on brain development
- Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
- Flame Retardants
Hypothesis that cell death and synaptic pruning are, like natural selection in species, the outcome of competition among neurons for connections and metabolic resources in a neural environment
Genetically programmed cell death
Nerve growth factor (NGF)
A substance that markedly affects the growth of neurons in spinal ganglia and in the ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system
Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF)
A protein purified from the brains of animals that can keep some classes of neurons alive
Chromosomal aberrations, single gene effects, mutations
Nutrients, drugs/toxins, cell to cell interactions, neurotropic factors, neural activity, sensory-driven (experience)
Developmental “window” during which some event has a long-longing influence on the brain