Neurobiology of Development

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Neurobiology of Development
2012-11-05 17:49:16
neurobiology development

lecture 12
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  1. what are the three perspectives when studying the relation between brain and behavioral development?
    • Structural development
    • Behavioral development
    • Factors that infulence both Structure and Behavioral Development. Ex.- language, injury
  2. What are the Prenatal Stages?
    • Zygote:¬†Fertilization to 2 weeks
    • Embryo: 2 to 8 weeks
    • Fetus: 9 weeks to birth
  3. Neural Plate
    Thickened region of the ectodermal layer that gives rise to the neural tube
  4. Neural Tube
    Structure in the early stage of brain development from which the brain and spinal cord develop
  5. Gross Development of the Human NS
    Day 49-Day 60-Day 100-7 months-9 months
    • Day 49: Embryo begins to resemble a miniature person
    • Day 60: Sexual differentiation (Genitals and brain regions)
    • Day 100: Brain looks distinctly human
    • 7 Months: Gyri and sulci begin to form
    • 9 Months: Brain looks like an adult brain
  6. Neural Stem Cell
    A self-renewing multipotential cell that gives rise to neurons and glia
  7. Subventricular Zone
    Lining of neural stem cells surrounding the ventricles in adults
  8. Progenitor Cell
    Precursor cell derived from a stem cell; it migrates and produces a neuron or glial cell
  9. Neuroblast
    Product of a progenitor cell that gives rise to different types of neurons.
  10. Glioblast
    Product of a progenitor cell that gives rise to different types of glial cells
  11. Neurotrophic Factor
    A chemical compound that acts to support growth and differentiation in developing neurons
  12. Neurogenesis
    The mitotic division of nonneuronal cells to produce neurons
  13. Cell Migration
    The massive movements of nerve cells and their precursors to establish distinct nerve cell populations.
  14. Differentiation
    Cells are formed into distinctive types of neurons or glial cells.
  15. Synaptogenesis
    The establishment of synaptic connections as axons and dendrites grow
  16. Cell Death
    The selective death of many nerve cells
  17. Synaptic Rearrangement
    The loss of some synapses and development of others, to refine synaptic connections.
  18. Behavioral Teratology
    • Exposure to drugs or toxins during pregnancy that causes side efects on brain development
    • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
    • Flame Retardants
  19. Neural Darwinism
    Hypothesis that cell death and synaptic pruning are, like natural selection in species, the outcome of competition among neurons for connections and metabolic resources in a neural environment
  20. Apoptosis
    Genetically programmed cell death
  21. Nerve growth factor (NGF)
    A substance that markedly affects the growth of neurons in spinal ganglia and in the ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system
  22. Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF)
    A protein purified from the brains of animals that can keep some classes of neurons alive
  23. Intrinsic
    Chromosomal aberrations, single gene effects, mutations
  24. Extrinsic
    Nutrients, drugs/toxins, cell to cell interactions, neurotropic factors, neural activity, sensory-driven (experience)
  25. Critical period
    Developmental “window” during which some event has a long-longing influence on the brain