Card Set Information
What are the 3 types of muscles?
What 2 types of muscles are striated
What 2 types of muscles have involuntary movement ?
Which muscle type is located in the heart?
Which type of muscle is located in the hollow organs?
Which type of muscle is connected to the skeleton?
Which type of muscle is steady, increases during stress, and is fatigue resistant
What type of muscle is slow, steady or sustained, and fatigue resistant?
What type of muscle is powerful, rapid, and fatigues easily?
Which types of muscle only has 1 nuclei per cell
What is the energy source of all the muscle types
Skeletal also has anerobic
What 2 cells make up cardiac muscle?
Cardiocytes and cardiac myocytes
What type of specialized cells establish a regular rate of contraction?
What happens at the intercalated disks of cardiac muscles?
Cell membranes of Cardiocytes are extensively intertwined
how do the connected Cardiocytes at the intercalated discs help the cells?
Stabilizes the relative positions of adjacent cells and maintain 3d structure of the tissue/heart
How are direct electrical connections between 2 Cardiocytes possible?
Cells are intertwined and located at the intercalated discs
What type of cell is tapered at its ends while relaxed?
What type of organs are smooth muscle cells mainly associated wwith
What two types of cells have low regeneration abilities?
Why are skeletal cells multinucleated?
Amount of length of the proteins needed for contraction to occur
What type of muscles produce movements of tthe body?
How are muscles connected to each other?
What is the muscle attachment to the bone that remains fixed or stationary when an articulation is used?
What is the muscle attachment to the bone that moves when an articulation is used
What is the middle, largest portion of muscle bundle called?
What is the formation of bundles or wires on skeletal muscles called?
What type of fascicle run along the longitudinal axis of the muscle?
What type of fascicle are short and attached obliquely to a central tendon running the length of the muscle?
What type of fascicles are strap like sartorius of the thigh and fusiform of tthe biceps brachii examples of?
What type of fascicles are the unipennate, bipennates, and the multipennate examples ofz?
What are examples of unipennate muscle cell arrangements?
What are examples of the bipennates muscle cell arrangement?
What are examples of multipennate muscle cell arrangement?
Deltoid muscle of acromium region
What type of muscles cells perform flexability?
What type of fascicles have a broad origin and converge toward a single tendon?
What type of fassicles/muscles are usually triangular?
What is an example of a convergent muscle?
What type of muscle are found surrounding openings which they close by contracting and open by relaxing?
What are examples of circular muscles?
What's another name for circular muscles
What does the pattern of fascicle arrangement determine?
Range of motion
How much do skeletal muscle cell fibers shorten when they are contracted?
70% of their relaxed length
What does muscle power/strength depend on?
Total number of muscle cells- more cells, more strength
What are the 4 layers of connective ttissue of a muscle?
What connective tissue layer surrounds the entire muscle and seperates it from surrounding tissues and organs?
What connective tissue divides the skeletal muscle into a series of compartments, each containing fascicles?
What does the Perimysium contain that helps control the nervous system?
Nerves that contain blood flow and innervate fascicles
What does muscle contraction require?
How do molecules enter and exit the muscles?
What type of connective tissue surrounds and connects individual muscle fibers?
What type of cells are scattered between Endomysium and muscle fibers called?
What type of cells function in repair of damaged muscle tissue?
What type of connective tissue allows muscles to slide agaisnt one another?
What do the Epimysium, Perimysium, and Endomysium combine to form?
What connects skeletal muscle to skeletal muscle?
What lies in muscle cells that run the length of the cell?
What are bundles of myofilaments called?
What are myofilaments made up of?
Protein filaments of actin aand myosin
What are thin filaments called?
What are thick filaments called?
What are smallest functional unit of the muscle fiber?
Whats responsible for muscle contraction?
Interactions between thick and thin filaments
What do Sacromeres contain?
Proteins that stabilize the positions of thick and tthin filaments
Proteins that regulate contraction/movement of filaments
What causes the banded/striped appearance of a sacromere?
Differences in size, density, and distribution of thick and thin filaments
What are the dark areas that contain myosin and portions of Actin called?
What are the light areas that contain only Actin called
What is the lenght of the A band?
Equal to the length of a thick filament
What are the 3 parts of an A band?
Zone of overlap
What part of the a band is that site at the middle of each thick filament where proteins connect thick filaments to each other to stabilize their positions?
What part of the a hand is only contains thick filaments and only appears when the muscle is relaxed?
What part of the a band is where thick and thin filaments overlap?
Zone of overlap
What part of the Sacromeres extends from the a band of one Sacromeres to the a band of the next Sacromere?
What part of the Sacromeres marks the boundary lines between Sacromeres?
What do z lines consist of that interconnect thin filaments of adjacent Sacromeres?
Where does communication between the nervous system and skeletal muscle fibers occur?
What type of neuron sends messages from the brain to individual muscles or glands?
What is another name for neuromuscular junctions?
What is the motor neuron and the muscle cell it innervates called?
What is the minimal level of stimulation needed to contract a Myofibril called?
What happens once a Myofibril is stimulated?
Myofibril contracts all the way-all or none affect
What are the 3 types of muscle contraction?
What type of muscle contraction is sustained and steady caused by a series of motor stimuil bombarding a muscle in rapid succession?
What type of muscle contraction produce movement across an articulation as muscle tension increases?
What type of muscular contraction does not produce movement across an articulation as muscle tension increases?
When is a skeletal muscle said to be fatigued?
When it can no longer contract despite continued neural stimulation
What can muscle fatigue result on?
Gradual reduction of strength aand flexibility of skeletal muscle
What is skeletal muscle recovery dependent on?
ATP, CP, glycogen and removal of metabolic waste
What is the amount of oxygen needed to restore muscle homeostasis called?
What major tissues are involved wwith oxygen debt?
Skeletal muscles and liver cells- generate ATP needed to convert excess lactic Acosta to glucose
What are the 5 functions of the skeletal muscles?
Joint stability and posture
Support ans protects soft tissue
Regulates entrances and exits
Regulates body temp
what function of the skeletal muscles moves the body by stretching muscles across the bones like levers?
What are the 3 parts of the movements of the skeletal muscles
Which part of the movement function is mainly responsible for making a particular movement?
What part of the movement function are prime movers who's actions oppose that of the Agonist under contraction?
What part of the movement function aids the prime mover in making a particular movement?
What part of the movement function stabilizes the more proximal joints during weight bearing functions.of the distal joints?
What function of the skeletal muscles cross over articulations aiding ligaments and holds body parts in positions that favor best and least restrictive function?
Joint stability/ posture
What skeletal muscle function protects visceral organs and supports their weight?
Support and protects soft tissue
What skeletal muscle function has smooth and skeletal muscles work to control the movement of materials into and out of the body?
Regulate entrances and exits
What skeletal muscle function has heat as a by product of friction taking place during muscular contraction during exercise and shivering?
Regulate body temp
What is muscle performance meausred by?
what type of disorder is the inflammation of the sheath surrounding the flexor tendons of the palm?
Carpal tunnel syndrome
What type of disorder is when ischemia resulting from accumulated blood and fluid trapped within a musculoskeletal campartment?
What disorder results from a serve strain or crushing injury?
What is a condition involving an organ or body part that produces through an abnormal opening?
What are the 3 types of hernias?
What type of hernia occurs whe abdominal organs slide into the thoracic cavity
what type of hernia occurs when inguinal canal enlarges and abdominal contents are forced into it
what type of hernia occurs at the umbilicus which may lead to intestines leaving the abdominal cavity to newborns
what type of disorder is found in strong insecticides where organophosphates interfere with AchE ability to breakdown Ach
what type of disorder leads to long, sustained skeletal muscle contractions that do not relax
what type of disorder is a condition in which occurs within a few hours of death
what disorder occurs because ATP is depleted, the cross bridges between actin and myosin cannot detach?
how long does rigor mortis last
what is another name for rigor mortis
stiffness of death
what type of disorder is prolonged, involuntary, painful muscular contractions?
what are the causes of muscle cramps
hormonal imbalance-menstrual cramps
what type of disorder is caused by a bacterially contaminated food
What type of disorder releases a toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine needed for contraction
what can botulism result in
paralysis or death
what type of disorder is an autoimmune disease in which acetylcholine receptors are destroyed resulting in a progressive paralysis
what type of disorder is caused by a common bacteria and only affects tissues that are low in oxygen
what is the incubation period of tetanus
less than 2 weeks
what are the symptoms of tetanus
what is the mortality rate of tetanus
what tye of disorder is a disease resulting from a viral destruction of motor neurons and characterized by paralysis and atrophy of motor units
what type of disorder is an abnormality in the genes that code for structural and funcitonal proteins in muscle fibers
what are the symptoms of muscular dystrophie
progressive skeletal muscle weakness
shallow breathing- resulting in pneumonia
what is a detailed examination of a body after death, usually performed by a pathologist called
What 3 stages are autopsies performed in
what stage of an autopsy observes bites, cuts, needle punctures, scars, burns, bruising, and edema
what stage of an autopsy requires a y-incision on the anterior torso to exam internal organs for tumors clots and englargements
what stage of an autopsy is a microscopic viewing for cancer, infection, and blood cell counts, and fluid examination
Why do doctors perform autopsy
determine cause of death
confirm the accuracy of diagnostics tests
to assess the effectiveness of surgeries or other medical treatments
did the patient die of a inherited disease
was the death preventable
detect previously undected problems