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- First presented her theory of unitary human being in 1970.
- Views the person as an irreducible whole, the whole being greater than the sum of its parts. Whole is differentiated from holistic, the latter often used to mean obly the sum of all parts.
- "human field image" states that humans are dynamic energy fields with the environmental fields
- According to Rogers, unitary man: is an irreducible, four-dimensional evergy field identified by pattern. Interacts continuously and creatively with the environment, behaves as a totality.
- focus on the person's wholeness, seek to promote symphonic interaction between the two energy fields to strengthen the person, direct and redirect patterns of interaction betwen the two energy fields to promote maximum health potential
- Use of noncontact therapeutic touch is based on the concept of human evergy fields
- First nurse theorist, "the act of utilixing the environment of the patient to assist him in his recovery"
- She linked health with five environmental factors: 1. pure or fresh air, 2. pure water, 3. efficient drainage, 4. cleanliness, 5. light, especially direct sunlight
- She stressed the importance of keeping the client warn, maintaining a noise-free environment, and attending to the client's diet interms of assessing intake, timeliness of the food, and its effect on the person.
- Considered a clean, well-ventilated, and quiet environment essential for recovery.
- A nurse anthropologist, put her views on transcultural nursing. States that care is the essence of nursing and the dominant, distinctive, and unifying feature of nursing.
- Her theory is based on the assumption that nurses must understand different cultures in order to function effectively.
- Culture care diversity and Universality emphasizes that health and care are influenced by elements of the social structure, such as echnology, religious and philosophical factors, kinship and social systems, cultural values, political and legal factors, economic factors, and educational factors.
- "Searches for comprehensive and holistic care data relying on social structure, worldview, and multiple factors in a culture in order to get a holistic knowledge base about care"
- Described five stages of grieving:
- 1. Denial: Refuses to believe that loss is happening. Is unready to deal with practical problems, such as prosthesis after the loss of a leg. May assume artificial cheerfulness to prolong denial.
- 2. Anger: Client or family may direct anger at nurse or staff about matters that normally would not bother them
- 3. Bargaining: Seeks to bargainto avoid loss. May express feelings of guilt or fear of punishment for past sins, real or imagined.
- 4. Depression: Grieves over what has happened and what cannot be. May talk freely or may withdraw.
- 5. Acceptance: Comes to terms with loss. May have decreased interest in surroundings and support people. May wish to begin making plans.
- Most renowned needs theorist, ranks human needs on five levels; Maslow's Hierarch of Needs
- 1. Physiologic Needs: needs such as air, food, water, shelter, rest, sleep, activity, and temperature maintenance are crucial for survival.
- 2. Safety and security Needs: The need for safety has both physical and psychologic aspects. The person needs to feel safe, both in the physical environment and in relationships.
- 3. Love and Belonging Needs: The third level of needs includes giving and receiving affection, attaining a place in a group, and maintaining the feeling of belonging.
- 4. Self-esteem Needs: The individual needs both self-esteem and esteem from others
- 5. Self-Actualizaion: When the need for self-esteem is satisfied, the individual strives for self-actualization, the innate need to develop one's mazimum potential and realize one's abilities and qualities.
Metaparadigm of Nursing
- Focused on articulating relationships among four major concepts; person, environment, health, and nursing.
- 1. Person or client: the recipient of nursing care
- 2. Environment: the internal and external surroundings that affect the client. This includes people in the physical environment, such as families, friends, and significant others.
- 3. Health: The degree of wellness or well-being that the client experiences.
- 4. Nursing: The attributes, characteristics, and actions of the nurse providing care on behalf of, or in conjunction with, the client.
- Metaparadigm: meta, meaning "with," and paradigm, meaning "pattern
M. Simone Roach
- Focuses on caring as a philosophical concept and proposes that caring is the human mode of being, or the "most common, authentic criterion of humanness"
- roach defines these attributes as the six C's of caring;
- 1.Compassion: Awareness of ones's relationship to others, sharing their joys, sorrows, pain, and accomplishments
- 2. Competence: Having the knowledge, judgment, skills, energy, experience, and motivation to respond adequately to others within the demands of professional responsibilities.
- 3.Confidence: The quality that fosters trusting relationships. Comfort with self, client, and family.
- 4. Conscience: Morals, ethics, and an informed sence of right and worng. Awareness of personal responsibility.
- 5. Commitment: Convergence betwwen one's desires and obligationsand the deliberate choice to act in accordancewith them.
- 6. Comportment: Appropriate bearing,demeanor, dress, and language, that are in harmony with a caring presence. Presenting oneself as someone who respects others and demands respect.