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What % of canadians are overweight or obese in canada today?
- 60% overweight or obese
- 23% obese
total energy expenditure (TEE)
The sum of the energy used for basal metabolism, activity, processing food, deposition of new tissue, and production of milk.
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
The rate of energy expenditure under resting conditions. BMR measurements are performed in a warm room in the morning before the subject rises, and at least 12 hours after the last food or activity.
resting metabolic rate (RMR)
Term used when an estimate of basal metabolism is determined by measuring energy utilization after 5-6 hours without food or exercise. RMR values are about 10%-20% higher than BMR values
for every 1°C above normal body temperature what is the % increase in BMR?
What effect can low energy diets have on BMR?
Energy intake below needs may depress resting metabolic rate by 10%-20%, or the equivalent of 100-400 kcal/day
nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT)
The energy expended for everything we do other than sleeping, eating, or sports-like exercise.
thermic effect of food (TEF) or diet induced thermogenesis
The energy required for the digestion of food and the absorption, metabolism, and storage of nutrients. It is equal to approximately 10% of daily energy intake.
What are the % energy costs of digesting fat protein and carbs?
- fat: 2-3%
- protein: 15-30%
How much Glycogen does the body store?
The body generally stores only about 200-500 g of glycogen—enough to provide glucose for about 24 hours
Fat-storing cells. Adipocytes grow in size as they accumulate more triglycerides and shrink as triglycerides are removed from them
- -A method of determining energy use that measures the amount of heat produced.
- -heat is generated by metabolic reactions that both convert food energy into ATP
- -It is expensive and impractical
- -A method of estimating energy use that compares the amount of oxygen consumed to the amount of carbon dioxide exhaled.
- -burning of fuels by the body in cellular respiration uses oxygen and produces carbon dioxide.
- -equipment is too cumbersome for long-term use
estimated energy requirements (EER)
The amount of energy recommended by the DRIs to maintain body weight in a healthy person based on age, gender, size, and activity level.
How is activity lever estimated for EER? for men and woman
Men: 1.00 1.11 1.25 1.48
Women:1.00 1.12 1.27 1.45
Life Stage EER Prediction Equation
- -Men ≥ 19 yrs EER = 662 - (9.53 × Age in yrs) + PA [(15.91 × Weight in kg) + (539.6 × Height in m)]
- -Women ≥ 19 yrs EER = 354 - (6.91 × Age in yrs) + PA [(9.36 × Weight in kg) + (726 × Height in m)]
What risks does obesity increase?
- Heart disease
- high blood cholesterol
- high blood pressure
- gallbladder disease
- sleep apnea,
- respiratory problems
What is body fat needed for?
Body fat is needed for cushioning, as an insulator, and as a reserve for periods of illness/famine
What are the healthy percentages of body fat for young men and woman?
bioelectric impedance analysis
A technique for estimating body composition that measures body fat by directing a low-energy electric current through the body and calculating resistance to flow. Fat is more resistant.
Adipose tissue that is located under the skin. More common in pear shaped bodies
A technique that uses the difference between body weight underwater and body weight on land to estimate body density and calculate body composition.
- -fat above waist and around internal organs.
- -more likely to become resistant to insulin than subcutaneous fat
- -releases more free fatty acids causing a higher incidence of heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke, and diabetes
- -found in people with apple body shapes
What is the waist cutoff for men and woman in north america?
Set Point Theory
theory that when people finish growing, their weight remains relatively stable, despite periodic changes in energy intake or output (one theory of why it is so hard to lose weight)
- -the genes in the body that code for proteins that regulate how we use and store energy
- -more than 300 genes and regions of chromosomes have been linked to weight regulation
-neurotransmitter in the brain, when levels are low, CHO is craved, when seratonin is high, protein is preffered
- -hormone produced by the stomach that stimulates food intake
- -produced in pancreas and stomach
- -is opposite of leptin
- -produced by adipose tissue(adipocytes) triggers hunger
- -functions in hypthalamus of brain
- -more fat means more leptin release
- -fat people over time can become resistant to leptin, resulting in higher levels of leptin in blood
-the theory that some people use energy very efficiently, creating excess ATP and therefore making them overweight/obese without large amounts of food consumed
-the change in energy expenditure induced by factors such as changes in ambient temperature and food intake
Genetics and Obesity
- -indivuduals with family history of obesity are 2-3 times more likely to be obese, risks increase with magnitude of obesity
- -75% of BMI is from genes, 25% from environment and lifestyle
-environment that promotes weight gain by encouraging overeating and physical inactivity
Pound of body fat
- -one pound of body fat contains 3500kcal
- -to lose one pound of fat in a week you need to be calorie negative by 500 kcal/day, by diet excercise or combination
Calorie restricted diets
- -less than 1200 kcal diets should be supplemented with multivitamin as it is difficult to consume balanced diet
- -less than 800 kcal, medical supervision is recommended
- -process used to gradually and permanently change habitual behaviors
- -antecedent is watching tv, behavior is mindlessly eating chips and consequence is feeling remorse and gaining weight
- -very low CHO
- -difficult to follow long term
- -hard on body
- -Rozwadowski was anti atkins
- -surgical procedure where and adjustable band is placed on upper portion of the stomach to limit the volume the stomach can hold and delay emptying
- -smaller stomach typically about 30 ml
- -staples stomach into smaller section similar to banding, but reroutes small intestine to the new stomach, thus shrinking the stomach and shortening length of intestine
- -can result in issues with diarrhea