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Did the Greeks know the earth was round? (3 ways)
- 1) Clouds-suggested curvature to the earth;
- 2) Eclipse of the moon-sometimes the earth blocks the moon and we can see a shadow of the earth on the moon
- 3) North Star-as we start walking north, the star is at less of an angle
Biome (Arctic and Alpine tundra)-Where is it?
- -North America, Northern Europe, Siberia, South America, Africa, and CA
- -occurs in high elevation due to there not being a lot of land mass
Biome (Arctic and Alpine tundra)-Why does it occur where it occurs
-because there is 7 months of frozen ground (very dry) (permafrost); trees can't really set roots
Biome (Arctic and Alpine tundra)-Are they adapted to fire?
Biome(Artic and Alpine tundra) Conservation Status
What is an arctic tundra?
-occurs in extreme northern latitudes where snow melts seasonally
What is an alpine tundra?
-Located in higher elevations of mountains above the tree line with a similar ecosystem as the arctic tundra
Boreal Forest-Where is it?
- 1. North America
- 2. Northern Europe
- 3. Northern Asia
Boreal Forest-Does it occur in California?
- 1. coastal redwoods
- --Sequoia National Park,
- --Yosemite and at high elevations
Boreal Forest-Why does it occur where it occurs?
- -Ground is not fozen year round.
- -Roots can set down and trees can grow;
- -cold enough for snow but it will disappear
Biomes-plant adaptations: what are the two adaptations?
- 1. Prostrate
- 2. Perennial
What are the characteristics of prostrate biomes?
Stays close to the ground
What are the characteristics of perennial biomes?
- -lives for more than one year;
- -almost all are edible
- -these plants want to be eaten to animals spread them
what are the plant adaptations of boreal forests?
What are the characteristics of a conifer?
- -they are cone bearing plants that have needles;
- -they are older plants including: fir trees, redwoods, pine trees
Are boreal forests adapted to fire?
yes, fire is important for this ecosystem
What is the issue with boreal forests being adapted to fire?
we have tried to supress these fires before, due to that they are no longer small forest fires but large scale fires
What are peoples impact on boreal forests?
what is the conservation status of boreal forests?
- 1. good: clear cut regions
- 2. bad: losing old growth of trees
Temperate Deciduous Forests-where it's located?
- -In northern hemisphere:
- East America,
- West Europe,
- -In southern hemisphere:
- New Zealand,
Temperate Deciduous Forests-Does it occur in CA?
Temperate Deciduous Forests-why does it occur where it occurs?
- -the winters are very cold causing trees to loose their leaves, ---pressure systems come off and cold air pushes down
- -Summer are very hot:
- -Warm water coming up from Florida coast, makes it hot and humid
Temperate Deciduous Forests-two plant adaptations
- 1) Flowering plants:
- Ex. magnolias, oak trees
- 2) Branches occur laterally
Temperate Deciduous Forests-are these plants adapted to fire?
No, fire will make them disappear
Temperate Deciduous Forests-people's impact
Temperate Deciduous Forests-conservation status
- 1. good: generally
- 2. bad: pollution kills a lot of trees in certain areas
Temperate Grasslands-where does it occur?
- 1. Prairies in the US
- 2.Veldt in S. Africa
- 3.Popus of Argentina,
- 4.Steppes of Russia and Australia
Temperate Grasslands-does it occur in CA?
Central Valley-more in the past
Temperate Grasslands-why it occurs where it occurs?
- 1. between deserts and temperate deciduous forests
- 2. Hot summer cold winter
Temperate Grasslands-is fire okay?
- -it is essential; it will burn the top 10%, and then will re-sprout from the roots;
- -if supressed it will turn into highly flammable shrub
Temperate Grasslands-plant adaptation
perennial-90% of the biomass is underground; deep root system
Temperate Grasslands-people's impact?
Temperate Grasslands-conservation status
ugly; US has destroyed 99.9% of grasslands
Where are Mediterranean Scrub located?
- 1. Mediterranean
- 2. California
- 3. central Chile
- 4. S. Africa
- 5. SW Australia
Tropical Rainforests-where does it occur?
- 1. Amazon
- 2. Congo
- 3. SE Asia,
- 4. coast of Brazil
Tropical Rainforests-Why does it occur where it occurs?
- 1. ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone). Warm water evaporates (low pressure) air always rising bringing warm air into the atomosphere and then it rains. Cloud is warm air surrounded by cold air; follows the sun where there will be the most evaporation
- 2. Orographic precipitation-mountains have a wet and dry side
Tropical Rainforests-plant adaptation
- 1. Tall trees-foilage at the top of the tree; roots are very shallow; epiphytes on top
- 2. Lianas-woody vines that climb to the top of the tree because there is so much competition for light
Tropical Rainforests-adapted to fire?
Tropical Rainforests-peoples impact
subsistence farming and urbanization
- 1. good on mainland
- 2. bad on coast
Tropical Dry forests-where it occurs
- 1. Mexico
- 2. central America
- 3. South America
- 4. India
- 5. Madagascar
Tropical Dry forests-why it occurs where it occurs
- 1. ITCZ: Rains twice at the tropics, but at the tropic of cancer and Capricorn, have a dry season half the year
- 2. Orographic precipitation
Tropical Dry forests-plant adaptation
- 1. Shorter canopy: about 20 m tallwhy:Because of the dry season (doesn't have enough water to grow taller)
- -Foliage still near the top
- -More are deciduous
- -Loses their leaves because gets so hot during the dry season
- -No epiphytes because can't maintain moisture during the dry season
Tropical Dry forests-adapted to fire?
Tropical Dry forests-peoples impact
- 1. Agriculture-most grazing because easy to cut down and burn during the dry seams
- -Nice place for people to live
- - Dry: not as much disease
Tropical Dry forests-conservation?
Ugly, has been reduced by a lot
Tropical Savannahs-where it occurs?
- 1. Brazil
- 2. Venezuela
- 3. Africa
- 4. India
- 5. Australia
Tropical Savannahs-why it occurs where it occurs?
- No precipitation (50-100 cm of rain per year)
Tropical Savannahs-plant adaptation
- -Grasses: lives for a year
- -Scatter tree, fire proof
- -3 seasons: growing, drying, burning season (lightening strikes, etc.)
Tropical Savannahs-adapted to fire?
Tropical Savannahs-peoples impact
Tropical Savannahs-conservation status
Good but bad in some cases
Hot desert-where does it occur?
- 1. Sahara
- 2. Mexico
- 3. Australia
- 4. N. Chile Desert
- 5. CA near the boarder of Mexico
Hot desert-why does it occur where it occurs?
Only gets 5-50 cm of rain per year
Hot Desert-plant adaptations
- 1. Succulent: means they hold water vs. Euphorbia (in Africa, no cactus)
- • cactus
- • Thorns and spines
- • Animals get thirsty, so the plants need to defend themselves
- • Annuals
Cold desert-where does it occur?
- 1. Gobi desert in Mongolia
- 2. Iran
- 3. Argentina
- 4. CA (near the Mohave desert)
Cold desert-why does it occur where it occurs?
Only gets 5-50 cm of rain per year
Cold desert plant adaptations
- • Not succulent (will freeze in the cold)
- • Long liver shrubs
- • crisotes
- • Like Joshua trees
Desert plant-adapted to fire?
no due to little biomass
Who discovered DNA?
discovered by Crick and Watson in 1958 (the double helix)
What four things make up DNA?
- • Adenine-thymine, cytosine-guanine
- • A T C G
Rules of base pairs:DNA
- an only have
- A-T/T-A or
- -big animals; Competition:
- • Actually good for a species, it drives evolution
Mega Fauna-isolation and its effects
- -If a species is isolated, means a higher chance it will fail as a population/group in survival.
- 1. Gigantism and dwarfism
- 2) No fear (because there are no predators)
- 3) Lose mobility (if there's nothing casing you, no need to run)
5 extinct Mega Faunas that were in LA
- 1. Mammoth,
- 2. rhino,
- 3. giant bison
- 4. lions
- 5. sabertooth tigers
Thomas Malthus Theory
- First person to say population growth was a problem
- • Said we will run out of food and starve in 1850-1880
Why was Malthus' Theory Wrong?
- -People left the UK. They invaded and colonized new places
- -Technology improved
what were familly planning programs like in the 50s 60s and 70s? and how did they do it?
- they were estab. to increase birth rate; it used UN and non-profit groups
- 1) Was centralized (centralized government leading these programs)o Government will give out access to condoms, the pill, etc.
- 2) Incentive basedo Give people economic benefits for family planning
- 3) Target was the head of the family: male (made decisions about women's reproductive health)
what were family planning programs like in the 80s 90s now?
- 1) Local organization (adapted to culture in the region)
- 2) Access based: get these things for free, if you want them, come get them
- 3) Target was the women (woman-primary target
What happened to Cuban agriculture after the soviet union dissolved? 7 ways
- Cuba became the most environmentally friendly country in the world, methods:
- 1)Went back to oxen to plow the fields, even people
- 2)Instead of cars, switch to the bike
- 3)Had to use natural pesticides (because no longer got fertilizer)
- 4)Agricultural intercropping: not one big crop
- 5) if a disease came in, wouldn't wipe out the whole field
- 6)Recycle waste: 7
- ) Sustainable population growth
Bad cases for population?
- population will double in 30 to 40 yrs.
- 1)India (areas in the south are good...but north are bad): Every month add 1.5 million people
- 2)Pakistan: 176 million, doubles every 40 years
- 3)Nigeria: 162 million, double in 30 years
awesome cases for population?
- -growth rate at replacement levels, each family has about 2 children to replace the parents; examples:
- 1. Iran
- 2. Thailand
- 3. Malaysia
- 4. Burma
- 5. China
- 6. Brazil
In the Us how many people have Hiv/aids
1 in 300 people
how to turn into a zombie?
- In Haiti:
- • Poison made from poison nettles, peas, frogs, spiders, puffer fish
- •Make people walk over the powder/poison, absorbs into skin, people go into paralysis
- • When heart slows down and blood stops flowing to your brain, creates brain damage
- • What produces zombie states, one of the intestines of the puffer fish if not processed
ITCZ (Inter Tropical Convergence Zone)
forces hot air to rise, creates rain mcachines. Lags behind sun, fluctuates north and south, always results in rain
plant that grows on another plant; symbiotic relaitonship
How are plants adapted to the Mediterranean climate?
Small leaves, point up, evergreen, light colored, nice smells for defense, leathery leaves
How are Mediterranean plants adapted to fire?
Seeds wont open unless fire, ribbony bark, resprouting, turpin (want to burn)
vine found throughout tropical rainforest
Origin of People and YOU/ Know the order of your ancestors
- 1. Sea squirt
- 2. Fish
- 4. Shrew
- 5. Primate
- 6. Homo
- 7. Homosapien
Exports from California: Big Five Export Crops in 2010
- 1. Almonds
- 2. lettuce
- 3. strawberry
- 4. milk
- 5. grapes
Genetically Modified Food: Franken Food: Good things about it
- 1. Large yield & nutrition (Green Revolution)
- 2. Diseases and pest resistant
- 3. Increase environmental tolerance!
1891 Forest Reserve Act
- (1) it created federal lands to be protected,
- (2) watershed protection,
- (3) created national park service
- (ie: Yellowstone and sequoia national parks)
1960 Multiple Use and Sustained Use Act
- (1) outdoor recreation,
- (2) national forest to be used for rangeland (rangeland is typically used for cattle),
- (3) timber,
- (4) watershed protection,
- (5) protect wildlife
What is clearcutting?
- (1) Identifying a section (seeking economic value) to be cut for private industry.
- (2) build a road,
- (3) cut every single tree down,
- (4) cable logging
Problems with Clearcutting
- (1) soil erosion,
- (2) water runoff sediment,
- (3) herbicide (kills shrubs faster than pine trees),
- (4) monoculture (trees of same age),
- (5) results in decline in wildlife (ie. Northern spotted owl)
United States Department of Agriculture
National forest service; responsible for developing and executing U.S. federal government policy on farming, agriculture (ie cattle), and food. It aims to meet the needs of farmers and ranchers, promote agricultural trade and production, work to assure food safety, protect natural resources, foster rural communities and end hunger in the United States and abroad
Department of the Interior
National Park Service: responsible for the management and conservation of most federal land and the administration of programs relating to Native Americans, Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians, and to insular areas of the United States. Under this department are The National Park Service and The Bureau of Land Management
Political group, lobbies
Earth First/ ELF
- -Tallest Tree.
- -Today 96% cut
- -4% left.
- -2% private,
- -2% federal or state (public)
- the largest tree
- -very hard brittle wood
How have forests changed in the West over the last 100 years?
- 1. surpressed fires
- 2. leaf litter build up
- 3. forest becomes dense
- 4. flammable
Roadless Areas # highways in U.S.# logging roads in U.S
- -44,000 miles of highways,
- -380,000 miles of logging roads
the problems with suppressing fire are (3)
- 1. litter build up (extremely flammable),
- 2. went from opens forest to closed canopy- creates crown fires,
- 3. bugs come and change composition
Fire policy choices (3)
- 2.reintroduce fire
- 3. do nothing and wait for a huge fire to kill everything
Tropical Vegetation Types
- 1. Tropical Rainforest,
- 2. Cloud Forest,
- 3. Tropical Dry Forest, mangroves
- 4. woodlands
Why Tropical Forest lost over the last 50 years?
- -Subsistence agriculture—to feed oneself (using slash and burn techniques), commercial plantations, cattle ranching, forest fires (with new fire cycles),
- -the forests are often destroyed for fuelwood—made into charcoal (esp tropical dry forests),
- -forests are also destroyed for timber
- -traditional agricultural methods, which are dependent on labor and a large amount of land to produce enough food to feed oneself and one’s family;
- -some methds include: shifting cultivation, slash-and-burn techniques
- -use modern agricultural methods, which require a large capital input and less land and labor than traditional methods;
- -have high yields.
- -Rubber, oil palm, coffee, bannanas, soy bean, coco
Forest Fires in the Tropics
- -New fire cycles.
- -First evidence humans are having effect on climate
- -Forests become more and more degraded and flammable. -El nino causes the forest fires
- -tropical dry forests are rapidly being destroyed for fuel wood.
- -Often the wood is used to make charcoal which is extremely wasteful.
- -planting diff trees together.
- -Makes a border around a town.
- -in the tropics, this wood is hard and colorful (it has no rings in the trunk since their environment doesn’t change seasons much).
- -In tropics no seasons, so no rings
- -no plantations
-forest fragmentation is the break up of large areas of habitat into small, isolated patches, which is a major threat to the long-term survival of many animal and plant species—threat to biological diversity
- depends on:
- -size of animal (our mega fauna are gone), solid forest (very dark), anything rare (density)
- -foreign species that spreads in a new area that it did not evolve in
- -often upsets the balance among organism living in that area and intereferes with the ecosystems normal functioning
- —the foreign species may compete with native species for food or habitat or may prey on them
- -Are relatively small areas of land that contain an exceptional number of endemic species and are at high risk from human activities.
- -They cover 1.4% of the Earth’s area and they house ½ of the worlds species.
- -These hotspots have exceptionally high diversity, endemism, but are at high threat of human exploitation. P. 360.
- -Ex Hawaii, Caribbean islands, Madagascar, Philipines, New Zealand
Name three highly developed, moderately developed, and less developed countries
- High: US, Canada, Japan
- Moderate: Mexico, Turkey, S. Africa
- Less: Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Laos
How many earth’s would we need if everyone consumed the same level as the United States?
The current restoration project in the Florida Everglades is using all but which one of the following strategies?
- There are no choices but what is listed is:
- -control of agricultural runoff
- -conversion of some agricultural land to marshes,
- -reengineer area’s system of canals,
- -levees and pumps to restore natural flow of water to the everglades
What is interesting about the city Curitiba, Brazil?
- -Although the city has a population of 2.5 million ppl they have developed a good example of compact development. -They have built a fast, clean and reliable bus system leaving a large area open for other uses.
- -It is a sustainable community
What are minerals and economic geology?
- -Minerals are elements or compounds of elements that occur naturally in Earth’s crust.
- -Economic Geology is concerned with using earths minerals and resources, combination of elements to make economic profit
What is a Wildlife Corridor?
- -A protected zone that connects isolated unlogged or underdeveloped areas; this is done to provide animals with escape routes and to allow them to interbreed.
- -Connecting two wildfie habitat areas to each other to prevent imbreeding and low genetic diversity
Forest covers what percent of the Earth (land area)
Less than 33%
Sustainable Development considers three important factors because:
- 1. Environmentally sound decisions-to not harm the environment or deplete natural resources
- 2. Economically viable decisions-consider all costs; including long term costs
- 3. Socially equitable decisions- reflect needs of society to ensure costs and benefits are shared by all groups.
Define sustainable agriculture and some good examples of it
- -This happens when modern agricultural techniques are combined with traditional farming methods.
- -Leaves for future generaltions and doesn’t strain. Only enough for family. It relies on beneficial biological processes and environmentally friendly chemicals that disintegrate quickly.
- -This includes breeding of disease resistant crops to promote animal health, biological diversity to minimize pest problems and water and energy conservation. -
- -Adding animal manure to soil and crop rotation are also good examples of this.
The IPAT equation refers to
- Environmental Impact (I) = The number of people (P) x The affluence per person which is a measure of the consumption or amount of resources used per person (A) x The environmental effects; resources needed and wastes produced of technologies used to obtain and consume the resources (T)I= PxAxT
- -This equation estimates the human impacts on the environment. Shows the mathemical impacts and the forces
- -Impact = People * Affluence * Technology
An activity that is “sustainable” by definition should
Ability to meet humanity’s current needs w/o compromising the ability of future generations to meet needs
The role of organisms in soil is
- -Organisms include roots, pants, termites, worms, moles snakes, groundhogs and bacteria.
- -Soil organisms provide essential ecosystem services like maintaining soil fertility, preventing erosion, breaking down toxic materials and cleansing water
What percent of the world's soil is suitable for agriculture?
The main world food problems are
Population, poverty, and environmental problems
The Green Revolution is
a revolution in the 20th century in which modern cultivarion methods were used to produced more food per acre. To keep up with popl growth
The scientific community has conclusive evidence to agree that Genetically Modified Foods are
As safe for human consumption as crops grown by conventional or organic agriculture
One of the worst problems with pesticides is that
They affect more species then the pests for which they are intended and bad insects are building resistance to them
Nomadic herding is
a form of subsistence agriculture where livestock is supported by land to arid for successful crop growth and nomadic herders must continuously move the cattle to find food
What is voluntary simplicity?
When people of a highly developed country recognize that happiness and quality of life are not measured by the accumulation of material goods and thus change their lifestyles.
Largest city in the world in 2015?
What is the difference between National Forests, National Parks, and National Wildlife Refuges?
- 1. National forests (u.s. forest service (dept. of agriculture
- —deals more with farming and trade)—191 million acres) were established for multiple uses: timber harvesting, mining, hunting, fishing, and other recreation; water resources and other watershed protection; and habitat for fishes and wildlife.
- 2. One of the primary goals of national parks (under dept. of interior
- —deals more with preservation, etc—84 million acres) is composed of cultural and historic sites designed to teach people about the natural environment, management of natural resources, and history of the site
- —they provide biological habitat and facilitate human recreation.
- 3. National wildlife refuge (u.s. fish and wildlife service (dept. of interior)—92 million acres) is the most extensive network of lands and waters committed to wildlife habitat in the world; the refuges represents all major U.S. ecosystems; its mission is to preserve lands and waters for the conservation of fishers, wildlife, and plants in the U.S
- —they are highly protected to be unchanged
What are the percentages of land ownership in the USA: private individuals
- 55% privates citizens, corporations, nonprofits;
- native americans 3%,
- state and local 7%,
- fed gov 35%
What is going on in the Tongass today?
The Tongass forest in Alaska is one of the world’s few temperate rain forests although under Clinton Administration there was a roadless area conservation rule to protect roadless national forests from road building and forest harvest but in 2001 it was blocked. Conflict btwn loggering industry (local econ)and environmental interests who want to prevent from clearcut logging
Who is Julia Butterfly and why is she cool?
Was a tree sitter (for 738 days) to prevent the pacific lumber company from cutting down a redwood in California.
An age structure diagram that represents rapid growth for a population looks like a _____.
The 18th century British economist Thomas Malthus said that _____grows exponentially, while _____ grows in a linear fashion. He predicted this would cause _____.
Population; Agriculture/Food supply; Famine, disease, war
Paul Martin’s Overkill or Munch Hypothesis
animals in New World went extinct by size, largest animals first when ppl got here
- Will never have a cure;
- -green monkey
- -Sub-Sahara Africa: 2002 Zimbabew 25%; 2912 Zimbabwe 15%; Uganda South Africa 15%1/300 people in US
Places with bad population
- India: 1.5 billion ppl added per month; 3% growth rate
- -Pakistan: 176 million; doubles ever 40 years
- -Nigeria: 162 million; avg. family size = 5 kids; doubles every 30 years
Three ways the Greeks knew the Earth was round
- 1. North Star
- 2. Lunar and Solar eclipse
- 3. objects disappeared over horizon
Rising motions caused by airflow over a mountain range or other topographic region.
Rice (Where from, How grown, Ecological Impact)
- Origin: Southern HimilayasHistory:
- -Feeds 2/3rds of all humanity; 50% of all calories for 1.6 billion people
- -How it is Grown: Wet rice - Rice fields, plant rice by hand in a leveled off place, fill with water; dry rice - go out and plant individual rice seeds, manually weed it
- Impact: Good in california for birds
Family Planning Programs (60's,70's to now)
- Centralized -> Localized
- Incentive based -> Access based
- Targeted head of house (usually male) -> Targets women
Spices (Where from, How grown, Ecological Impact)
- Origin: Sulawesi, Spice Island (Indonesia)
- History: Cloves - Gold; Magellen brought back 26 tons of cloves and paid for the three year trip around the world
- How it is Grown: Grown on trees
- Impact: Good; few trees grow a lot of cloves
Potato (Where from, How grown, Ecological Impact)
- Origin: Andes; high elevation
- History: 4th largest crop in the world; currently China is growing the most potatoes; vodka
- How it is Grown: Put into grown, tube on top; wild wavieties
- Impact: Generally good (no pesticides/fertilizers), Bad when there is only one species
Sugar (Where from, How grown, Ecological Impact)
- Origin: New Guinea (banana split)
- History: Grass that is burnt down after it is cut
- How it is Grown: Grass; takes lots of fertilizer with nitrogen (in Florida, the nitrogen is flowing into the coast and algae is growing)
- Impact: Bad when monoculture - only one crop, lots of fertilizer, nitrogen
Cacao (Where from, How grown, Ecological Impact)
- Food of the Gods (Aztec)
- Origin: Amazon, Andes
- History: Brought back to Europe by Columbus
- How it is Grown: Tree that grows in wet areas, caulif (seeds grow off tree's trunk) crach open cacao to 4 seeds, ferment the seeds; Nigeria Cameroon
- Impact: Good because animals can survive with trees as opposed to grass
Tea (Where from, How grown, Ecological Impact)
- Origin: China
- History: 2000 BC; wildly drunk in Islamic country; half of tea comes from China; England is largest consumer
- How it is Grown: Grows in grasses in monoculture; Shrub
- Impact: Bad because of monoculture (India, Indonesia)
Coffee (Where from, How grown, Ecological Impact)
- Origin: Highlands of Ethiopa
- History: Relatively new; 500 AD; Town of Mocha, Yemin that exported the most coffee for a while
- How it is Grown: Good - organic shade grown coffee (grown on the hills, doesn't tear down natural flora; animals still use canopy); Bad - monoculture, sun coffee
- Impact: sun coffee- Bad(clearcutting rainforests & forests)
- shade coffee- good, no fertilizers or pesticides
Rubber Tree (Where from, How grown, Ecological Impact)
- Origin: Brazil; occurs in the Amazon basis
- History: No monoculture of rubber trees; leaf blight; Fortlandia (monoculture of rubber trees funded by Ford, leaf blight); 1850 illegal to export seeds; WW2 (1940), synthesized rubber, law for airplane wheels
- How it is Grown: Go to tree and slice with machete, drips down into bucket
- Impact: Good - in Brazil and parts of Ecuador; Bad - monoculture in Malaysia and SE Asia
Bananas (Where from, How grown, Ecological Impact)
- Origin: New Guinea
- History: 1 hectare (100 m x 100 m) makes 4400 pounds of bananas as opposed to 98 pounds of potatoes)
- How it is Grown: Banana tree, sprouts seeds at the base; Grow it, chop it up, grow it somewhere else
- Impact: Bad - monoculture in Costa Rica (trash bags used to help protect them from insects affect wildlife but looks like jellyfish to ocean life); Good - small scale
Orange (Where from, How grown, Ecological Impact)
- Origin: China
- History: Introduced to Spain; important to LA
- How it is Grown: Orange trees in a Mediterranean climate
- Impact: ?
Apple (Where from, How grown, Ecological Impact)
- Origin: Kazakhstan
- History: ?
- How it is Grown:
Cereals (Where from, How grown, Ecological Impact)
- Fertile Crescent region
- Includes maize, rice, wheat, barley, etc.
Maize (Where from, How grown, Ecological Impact)
- Origin: Mexico
- History: 5000 BC; half of corn is grown in the US; 99% of US corn is not self-pollinated
- How it is Grown: Stalks as high as an elephant's eye
- Impact: Bad when monoculture; Good when intercropping - creates diversity, lots of produce, and decreases disease from jumping from plant to plant
Wheat (Where from, How grown, Ecological Impact)
- Origin: Far North; Iran 7500 BC
- History: 5 different species of wheat; beer is made from wheat; Colonized globally, most produced crop in the world
- How it is Grown:
- Impact: Good when intercropped; bad when monocultured
Pineapple (Where from, How grown, Ecological Impact)
- Origin: Paraguay
- History: 1/3 of all pineapples are Hawaiian; hard to grow; now from Taiwan
- How it is Grown: Small plant that sends up a stalk after a year and sprouts the pineapple; Taiwan
- Impact: Bad when monoculture; Good when on small scale
Opium Poppy (Where from, How grown, Ecological Impact)
- Origin: Southern France
- History: Became illegal in Europe in 1718; Opium War 1839 (Europe brought Opium into China); 50 alkaloids (morphine, pain killers)
- How it is Grown: Little plant where a stalk sprouts up and creates a receptacle; you slice the pouch and black tar comes out
- Impact: Bad - Heroin is a product; Good for morphine
Coco (Where from, How grown, Ecological Impact)
- Origin: Andes
- History: 3000 BC; Inca civilizations were founded on coca; Spanish forbids natives to chew it; originally in coke
- How it is Grown: Coca and 50 other plants; more calories than any other plant in South America; #1 in protein, fiber, and carbohydrates; more calcium than any other plant in the world; leaves are good, processed form is bad
- Impact: Processed becomes heroin and cocaine
PHV/Venereal warts: Statistical Fact
30 to 50% in US, Urban area 80%
measles & Tuberculosis came from
kimodo dragon of Indonesia, filled niche of tigers, predator missing something will evolve
something big gets smaller, channel islands, pygmy mammoth to deer
USE: Acorns were the primary food source for a number of California Indians. Acorns were collected, leached with water in stream and basket to remove tannins (Wine) then heated with rocks for mush. Wood also used for bow
USE: Indians brewed flowers for fevers, upset stomach, flu. One of the richest sources of vitamin C! Stems used for arrow shaft and flutes. Raw berry can cause nausea, but dried or cooked are OK.
USE: Indians would use the leave as mosquito repellent. Lemonade Berry (Rhus intergrifolia) has berries that are soaked and hairs removed to make pink lemonade.
Yucca, Our Lords Candle
USE: The leaves are very strong and used for water proof baskets. The leaves were used as a needle and thread to make clothes and homes. The root is used for soap.
USE: The red fruits are edible but watch for very small spines. The green leaf can be cooked and eaten and is still commonly done in LA.
USE: The leave of willow is what they make asprin from and the Indians would chew them for toothaches.
USE: The seeds were ground to a fine dust and put in the stream to catch fish. Temperate Forest Policy in the US
Ancient Cone Pine
oldest tree: 4,800 years old
What is the world most endangered forest?
Tropical dry forests of Oceania
Why is New Caledonia interesting in a botanical sense?
- -named after Scotland
- -saved ancient plants (Aracauria)
- -ancient ecosystem, found no where else in the world (marquis scrub)
What is the crested iguana of Fiji and why is it important?
- -discovered by western scientist 30 years ago
- -got stuck on a log from south america to fiji
- -restricted to the tropical dry forests of Fiji
- -greatest navigator
What can be done to reforest the world’s most endangered forest?
- -figure out what occurred on the dry side of Hawaii?
- -replant to get them off the endangered species list
- -protect the remaining fragements, removing invasive species, fences
% of trees on Endangered Species list from worlds most endangered forest?
How much money do we lose a year for selling forests?
- 1.3 Billion $
- -road coasts
- -restoration is govt. job
CA Grassland development/ Vernal Pools(Development?species? endangered?)
- CA Evolved like an island for plants(2125 endemic plants)
- -Central Valley: perennial evergreen bunch grass
- -Europeans came, brought grasses unintentionally from BASALT(Dirt weighing down ships)
- -1% of native grasses left.
- -VERNAL POOLS: Spring pools, Very rare, water accumulates on hardpan, 200 species occur on in vernal pools, 75 ENDANGERED SPECIES-copopods"fairy shrimp"
- -DEVELOPED ON, RICE/Buildings
Oak woodlands Genus? usage?
Genus is Quercus!used for acorns and for building houses in oak woodlands.