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non-specific immunity or natural immunity
Fast, reliable but non-specific first line of defense type of immunity
similar response regardless of the pathogen
The 4 innate immunity defense mechanisms
- Fever (by inflammatory cytokines)
- Complement (by functionally lined plasma proteins)
- Natural Killer Cells
- Acute inflammation (mast cells, macrophage, neutrophils)
Specific immunity or acquired immunity
slow, cantankerous, highly specific defense system.
This type of immunity can be cell-mediated or antibody mediated
Anitbody-mediated immunity is also called
cell-mediated immunity's 2 main components
- immune mediated inflammation
- cytotoxic T cell-Mediated response
Endogenous pyrogens are?
- 1. fever-inducing substances produces inside the body- IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha that are secreted by macrophage
- 2. Prostaglandins-produced by the hypothalamus
Fever inducing substances produced outside the body
The presence of ___ alerts the body and ellicits they cytokine storms.
What is the central component in the LPS- induced cytokine cascade reaction?
minor localized infections will have high or low quantities of LPS?
low, macrophage release sm amts of TNF-alpha
In a systemic response ___ acts as an endogenous pyrogen, inducing ___ to produce acute phase proteins & stim productio of IL-1, IL-6 by other macrophage and __ cells.
In a systemic response TNF-alpha acts as an endogenous pyrogen, inducing heptocytes to produce acute phase proteins & stim productio of IL-1, IL-6 by other macrophage and NK cells.
What happens in septic shock?
- TNF-alpha despresses myocardial contractility
- reduces BP
- Promotes localized coagulation & aggregation of neutrophils
- = hepto,nephro,cardio,pulmonary failure
A tighly regulated cascade of functionally linked proteins in the plasma. Activation results in the opsonization of lysis of the intruding pathogen or results in acute inflammation
Innate immunity's Complement defense mechanism
What are the 2 interrelated complement pathways?
- 1. classical complement pathway- defense against adaptive immunity, initiiated by AB binding to antigen (IgM or IgG), takes 7-10 days to kick in,
- 2. Alternative (Primary) complement pathway- defense of innate immunity, initated directly by specific microbial antigens, can react instanlty
Activation of either complement pathway results in the formation of clevage products w diff EFFECTOR functions
- complement-mediated cell lysis
- Activation of inflammation
Ninja cells that work on there own. Closely related to Cytotoxic T cells but don't need permission from Th1, serve a as a bridge between innate and adaptive immunity
Innate immunity defense response Natural Killer cells
a coordinated assult on pathogens that involve a variety of different cells and molecules. Will usually emilimate pathogens or innitate Adaptive immune response.
Innate immunity's Inflammation defense
Is acute inflammation an Innate or Adaptive Immune response?
Innate immune process
Explain Acute inflammation
Macrophages run the show, they are activated & secrete inflammatory cytokines (IL-1,IL-6,TNF-alpha) that recruit & direct inflammatory cells.
The presence of lg #s of macrophage & inflammatory cells is a characteristic symptom of ?
Immune-mediated inflammation is an innate or adaptive immune process?
adaptive immune response
explain inuume-mediated inflammation
Activated Th1 inflammatory T cells secrete Type 1 cytokines (IL-2,TNF-ß, IFN-gamma) that recruit & direct macrophage & inflammatory cells.
The presence of lg #s of TH1 inflammatory t cells, macrophage & inflammatory cells is a characteristic symptom of ?
Immune mediated inflammation
In adaptive immunity, what are the antigen Presenting cells?
macrophage, B cells, Dendritic cells
What do macrophage do in adaptive immunity?
Present microbial & particulate antigens to CD4+ T cells.
What do B cells do in Adaptive immunity?
Present SOLUBLE, tiny, small antigens to CD4+ T cells. They display antigen-specific IgD Antibody Molecules on their surface.
What do dendritic cells do in the adaptive immunity process?
present virus antigens to both CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells. they are designed to be infected by viruses. Then they process and present antigens from virus to both a TH0 CD4+ T cell and a CD8+ T cell.
Induced by Foreign Antigen produced inside cells
Activated Th1 inflammatory T cell secretes type 1 cytokines.
Cell mediated Immune responses
Explain immune-mediated inflammation
- activated TH1 inflammatory T cells secrete type 1 cytokines (IL-2,TNF-ß,IFN-gamma) that enlist and activate macrophage and neutrophils.
- The activated macrophage & neutrophils phagocytose & eliminate antigen.
- Activated macrophage phagocytose antigen & present it to CD4+Tcells.
- The evolved to kill intracellular bacteria & fungal, protozoal & Helminth infestations
Explain cytotoxic T cell-mediated response
- activated TH1 inflammatory T cells secrete type 1 ctyokines (IL-2, TNF-ß,IFN-gamma) that activate CD8+ cytotoxic T cells.
- Activated CD8+ cytotoxic T cells seek out infected cells. The endogenous apoptotic pathway is initiated in these cells. Target cell commits suicide, antigen is eliminated and so is the cell.
- Cytotoxic T cells evolved to kill virus-infected cells and tumor cells.
Induced by foreign antigen in body fluids.
Activated TH2 helper T cell secretes Type 2 Cytokines (IL-4,IL-5, IL-10) that activate B cells.
Antibody-mediated (humoral) immune responses
The 5 human antibody classes are?
The major antibody class in the circ sys, the default mode.
The first antibody class secreted by a ß cell. Planar when in the circ system but looks like a table when bound. Looks and acts like 5 IgG molecules arranged in a ring.
The major antibody class secreted on mucosal surfaces. Will bind to pathogens prior to entering the body= immune exclusion.
An antigen-specific receptor for B cell recognition and activation. Supposedto stay on B cells but sometimes it falls off into the system.
The antibody class involved in allergies and Helminth infestations. Responsible for hay fever and food allergies
Antibody effector functions
- 1. neutralization- when antibody binding blocks the functioning of a pathogen or toxin
- 2. Opsonization (IgG only)-when antibody binding tags a pathogen for phagocytosis
- 3. Complement Fixation (IgG, IgM)- when antibody binding initiates the classical complement pathway.
- 4. Antibody- dependent cell-mediated cytoxicity/ ADCC (IgG, IgA, IgE)- when AB binding tags virus-infected cells, tumor cells or parasites for cell-mediated killing.
compare primary & secondary responses
- Primary- req.s lg amt of the antigen. Antigen can be protein, polysaccharide or lipid, 5-10 day lag, then a low-to-moderate affinity antibody response.
- Secondary- req.s small amt of antigen. Antigen must be a protein, 1-3 day lag time then a high affinity antibody response.
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