the perception of fairness in the workplace outcomes, processes, and interactions (repair harm)
the perception of fairness of the processes and methods used to determine outcomes
the fairness of the interpersonal treatment a person receives
Three Dimensions of Responses to justice
1. active/ passive
2. individual/ group
3. positive/ negative.
How did Cowan study people’s perceptions of work place bullying and justice? What was the unit of analysis?
*Perceptions were studied using a blog post on BullyOnline, social confrontation episode and systematically identified episodes in discussion that were either productive or unproductive.
*Unit of analysis was an episode (a series of acts or moves which have tactical significance in accomplishing ones goals)
concerned with the perceptions of the fairness of outcomes
generally focuses on repairing harm done by offenders and restoring relationships
What were characteristics of unproductive episodes?
Unproductive episodes have sense-making alluding to the episode reaching a dead end in regards to justice or the larger problem of bullying.
perceived incompatibility of values, norms, processes, or goals between a minimum of two cultural parties over identity, relational and/or substantive issues.
How does Intercultural Conflict relate to the work force?
It relates to the work force because 85% if the entering workforce will be immigrants, minority members, or women and 4: 5 jobs in the US are direct result of foreign trade
group level construct that embodies a distinctive system of traditional beliefs, values, norms, rituals, symbols and meanings that is shared by the majority of interacting individuals in a community (pattern and way of living)
refers to the board value tendencies of people in a culture to emphasize individual identity, individual rights over group obligations and individual achievements over group concerns.
manifested through interpersonal conflict through the representation of collective opinions or ideas, the restraint of personal emotional expression, and group accountability, if possible.
view self as autonomous, self-reliant, unencumbered by agents of change, and as a rational choice maker- direct in approach
see self as group bound, role-based, interconnected, obligatory agents, and harmony seekers- cautious
individualistic- time is linear and divided naturally into segments- scheduled
arbitrary division of time holds little meaning- simultaneous occurrence of many things and a great involvement of people
What does culture do for us?
Give a pattern of living; assumes the primary role of conditioning preferred conflict styles.
What ignites intercultural conflict?
Perceived differences especially in through conflict style, norms, rhythms, assumptions, ethnocentrism, individualism/ collectivism, self concept, context
What types of communication acts express intercultural conflict?
Individual level and differences on conflict style
What are the roots of the word ethnocentrism?
Ethnos (nation) and kentron (center)
What is authoritarianism? How does it relate to religion?
An organization or state which enforces strong or oppressive measures against its population; One who prefers, or one who enforces, absolute obedience to an authority; A totalitarian; Of, or relating to, absolute obedience to an authority; Characterized by a tyrannical obedience to an authority
What behaviors are related to religious fundamentalism?
Right wing authoritatism, condemn homosexuality, low in quest for philosophy/ existentialism, strong religious influence as a child
a process involving 2 parties in conflict with each other an un-involved 3rd party who is not concerned about who wins or loses and does not act as an advocator for either party- the goal is the empowerment of both parties to find a feasible mutually acceptable decision
how individuals diffuse conflict within their group and involves choices and conflict style and managing and regulating emotion.
What is negotiation?
A one on one third party interaction where two people can manage the problem on their own and form a moderation- this occurs because of arguing for ones own outcomes and involves differentiation, clarifying the problem, recognizing the interdependence, defining the super ordinate goal and come to a solution and monitor it.
a formal 3rd party such as s judge or jury and usually laywers are involved and occurs because of law suits, criminal or assault cases. Either party may or may not be willing to join in the discussion and can lead to an overburden on the justice system.
less formal typically involves labor or management disputes. Both parties mutually consent to the arbitration and the a hearing takes place where the arbitrator decides who is right &wrong and an award is given.
is a process involving two or more parties who are in conflict with each other and an uninvolved 3rd party who serves as a neutral and impartial guide, structuring an interaction. People in the conflict are the decision makers, not the mediator.
ADR- Alternative dispute resolutions
Alternative dispute resolutions- mechanisms that exist for people who wish to find a constructive venue for addressing their conflicts such as through mediation- in the past ten years its use has greatly increased- mediation occurs in various cultures throughout time- now used for labor management and some states require its use during divorce.