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The study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors affect, and are affected by the behavior of others.
A tendency to think, feel, or act positevely or negatively toward a person or object.
An uncomfortable state of tension caused by percieving a contradiction among ones beliefs, feelings, actions, and or experience.
How to Change a Belief Using Cognitive Dissonance:
- Encourage a behavior that contradicts the person's belief, but...
- -give the min. reward needed to produce compliance, and...
- -surround the person by fellow believers
3 Kinds of Social Influence:
- -Conformity: yielding to real or imagined group pressure
- -Compliance: yielding to a direct request
- -Obedience: yielding to a direct order
- 1. Prescriptive: how events should be.
- 2. Descriptive: how events are.
Two Conformity Studies
- 1. Muzafer Sherif(1937):
- -the "autokinetic effect"
- 2. Solomon Asch(1952):
- -Actors unanimously lie on 12 of 18 trials
- -70% of subjects conform on at least one trial
3 Forms of Compliance
- 1. Foot-in-the-Door: Start small. Acceptance. Go big.
- 2. Door-in-the-Face: Start big. Rejection. Go small.
- 3. Lowballing: (Bait-and-Switch): Get acceptance. Say you only have a more expensive one in stock.
2 Compliance Studies:
- 1.Stanley Milgram(1960's)
- -2/3 went all the way to 450 volts.
- 2. Philip Zambardo(1970's): Stanford Prison Study
- - deindividuation: the loss of of individual identity by submersion into the group.
The study of how people decide to what to attribute the causes of behavior
Why did the person do that?
- 1. Internal: The behavior is caused by something within the person.
- -traits, state, character, mood
- THE PERSON IS RESPONSIBLE
- 2. External:The behavior is caused by something in the situation.
- THE PERSON IS NOT RESPONSIBLE
Two Kinds of Groups:
- In-Group: A group in which one identifies
- Out-Group: A group with which one does not identify
- a tendency to think, fell, or act, positively or negatively toward a person based on assigning that person membership in a group.
- THE GROUP IS A "SOCIAL CONSTRUCT."
Levels of Consciousness: "The Iceberg Model"
- Conscious-Currently in awareness
- Preconcsious-Available to awareness
- Unconscious-Blocked form awareness due to anxiety (Repressed)
3 Meanings of Unconcsious:
- 1. Repressed
- 2. Difficult to bring to awareness and repressed
- 3. Not concsious (cognitive unconcsious)