Motivation and Emotion

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Motivation and Emotion
2012-11-05 22:40:50
Motivation Emotion

Lecture 13
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  1. Motivation
    behavior that seems purposeful and goal directed
  2. Drive
    Hypothetical state of arousal that motivates an organism to engage in particular behavior
  3. "Flush" model
    • Once a behavior is started it will continue until all the energy in its reservoir is gone. 
    • Separate stores of energy for different behaviors
  4. Reinforcer
    • operant conditioning any event that strengthens the behavior that it follows
    • B.F. Skinner
  5. Learned Taste Aversion
    • Aquired association between a specific taste or odor and illness
    • leads to an aversion to foods having that taste or odor
    • Ex. dead sheep + poison= sad cyote 
  6. Prepardness
    • Predisposition to respond to certain stimuli differently than other stimuli
    • brain is prewired to make certain types of associations but not others
    • Ex. two mice in one cage -> one recieves shock, thinks it's from the other mouse -> ATTACK!!!!
  7. What are the critical structures of motivated behavior
    • Hypothalamus and associated pituitary gland
    • Limbic system
    • Frontal lobes 
    • Both limbic system and frontal lobes project to the hypothalamus 
  8. Homeostatic Mechanism
    Process that maintains critical body functions within a narrow, fixed range 
  9. Regulatory Behavior
    • Behavior motivated to meet the survival needs of the animal
    • controlled by homeostatic mechanisms, which INVOLVE THE HYPOTHALAMUS
    • Ex. internal body temperature , eating, drinking, salt consumption, waste elimination
  10. Nonregulatory Behavior
    • Behavior unnecessary to meet the basic survival needs 
    • most involve the frontal lobes more than the hypothalamus (frontal lobes > hypothalamus)
    • strongly influenced by the external stimuli.
    • Ex.  parental behavior, aggression, food preferance, curiosity, reading, SEXY TIME! BOOM BOOM! SKEET SKEET!
  11. Pituitary Gland
    • Endocrine gland attached to the bottom of the hypothalamus
    • secretions control the activities of many other endocrine glands
    • known to be associated with biological rhythms
  12. Factors involved in controlling hypothalamic hormone-related activity
    • Feedback loops
    • Neural regulation 
    • Experiential responses
  13. Feedback Loops
    Control the amount of hormone that is released 
  14. Neural Regulation
    Other brain regions- limbic system and frontal lobes- influence hormone release
  15. Experiential Responses
    Experience can alter the structure and function of hypothalamic neurons
  16. Electrical stimulation of different nuclei in the hypothalamus will produce goal-directed behaviors, such as:
    • Eating and drinking
    • Digging
    • Displaying fear
    • Predatory or attack behavior
    • Reproductive behavior
  17. Amygdala
    • Almond-shaped collection of nuclei located within the limbic system
    • receives input from all sensory systems
    • sends projections primarily to the hypothalamus and brainstem
    • influences autonomic and hormonal responses via connections with the hypothalamus 
    • influences conscious awareness of the consequenses of events and objects via connections with the prefrontal cortex
    • involved in species-specific behaviors and emotion
  18. Klüver-Bucy syndrome
    • first shown in rhesus monkeys with large BILATERAL LESIONS OF THE AMYGDALA 
    • affects social behavior
    • caused monkeys to:
    • eat anything
    • placidity
    • lack of fear/aggression
    • hypersexuality- FUCK ANY OBJECT THAT TICKLES YOUR FANCY ie- chair, horse, pig, pencil sharpener. 
  19. Three main regions of frontal lobe
    • motor cortex
    • premotor cortex
    • prefrontal cortex
  20. Motor cortex
    Controls fine movements
  21. Premotor Cortex
    Selection of appropriate movement sequences
  22. Prefrontal Cortex
    Involved in specifying the goals toward which movemet should be made
  23. Three components of emotion
    • Autonomic Response- increased heart rate, hypothalamus and associated structures
    • Subjective Feelings- fear, amygdala and parts of frontal lobes
    • Cognitions- thoughts about the experience, cerebral cortex
  24. Emotion
    • Arouse the autonomic nercous system
    • Each situation evokes its own mixture of sympathetic and parasympathetic arousal
    • Measurement of evoked responses indicate the brain is specialized to attend strongly to facial expressions
    • Not localized in specific parts of the cortex
    • single emotion increases activity in various parts of the brain
  25. James-Lange View of Emotion
    • Physiological changes produced by the autonomic nervous system come first
    • Brain interprets these changes as an emotion
    • EVIDENCE: intensity of emotions in individuals with spinal cord damage depends upon how far up on the spinal cord that the damage is located 
  26. Somatic Marker Hypothesis
    • Posits that "marker" signals arising from emotions and feelings act to guide behavior and decision making
    • ususally unconscious process