Behavior and Emotional Disorders Chapter 9

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Behavior and Emotional Disorders Chapter 9
2012-11-06 16:03:43
Chapter Intellectual Disability Mental Retardation

Abnormal Child Psychology 5th edition
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  1. eugenics
    first defined by Sir Francis Galton as "the science which deals with all influences that improve the inborn qualities of a race". In early 1900s, public and professional emphasis shefted away from the needs of persons with intellectual disability toward a consideration of the needs of society; society was to be protected from the presumable harm done by the presence of these persons in the community. This misdirected view provided justification for restricting the rights of individuals with intellectual disability and their opportunities for advancement.
  2. general intellectual functioning
    one's general level of intellectual ability, defined by an IQ derived from an assessment with one or more of the standardized, individually administered intelligence tests
  3. adaptive functioning
    the ability to cope effectively with ordinary life demands, to live independently, and to abide by community standards. Adaptive functioning is a necessary component for defining levels of intellectual disability
  4. mild mental retardation
    an IQ level in the range of 50-55 to approximately 70
  5. moderate mental retardation
    an IQ level in the range of 35-40 to 50-55
  6. severe mental retardation
    an IQ level in the range of 20-25 to 35-40
  7. profound mental retardation
    an IQ level below 20 or 25
  8. developmental-vs-difference controversy
    a debate regarding the developmental progression of children with mental impairments. The developmental position argues that all children, regardless of intellectual impairments, progress through the same developmental stages in the same sequence, but at different rates. The difference position argues that the development of children with mental impairments proceeds in a different, less sequential, and less organized fashion than that of children without impairments
  9. difference viewpoint
    the view that cognitive development of children with intellectual disability differs from that of normally developing children in more ways than merely differences in developmental rate and upper limits
  10. down syndrome (trisomy 21)
    a chromosomal abnormality in which there are three 21st chromosomes rather than the normal 2. Child with Down typically function at the moderate level of intellectual disability, have an increased likelihood of medical problems, and have unusual physical features. 
  11. self-injurious behavior (SIB)
    severe and sometimes life-threatening acts taht cause damage to the subject's own body, such as head banging, eye gouging, severe scratching, rumination, some types of pica, and inserting objects under the skin
  12. cultural-familial group
    Intellectual disability (ID) in which there is no evidence of organic brain damage
  13. genotype
    an indivudual's specific genetic makeup
  14. phenotype
    an individual's observable characteristics or behaviors (the expression of one's genotype in the environment)
  15. heritability
    the proportion of the variance of a trait that is attributable to genetic influences
  16. nondisjunction
    the failure of the 21st pair of the mother's chromosomes to separate during meiosis. In most Down cases, the extra chromosome results from this failure of separation
  17. fragile-x syndrome
    a chromosomal abnormality in which one area on the X chromosome is pinched. Children with fragile-x typically suffer from moderate intellectual disability
  18. prader-willi syndrome
    a complex genetic disorder associated with an abnormality of chromosome 15. Children iwth PWS typically suffer from short stature, intellectual or learning disability, incomplete sexual development, certain behavioral problems, low muscle tone, and involuntary urge to eat constantly
  19. angelman syndrome
    a genetic disorder associated with an abnormality of chromosome 15. Children with this disorder typically suffer from moderate to severe mental retardatio, ataxia (awkward gait), jerky movements, hand flapping, seizures, the absence of speech, and distinctive facial features such as a large jaw and open-mouthed expression 
  20. fetal alcohol syndrome
    a disorder stemming from extensive prenatal exposure to alcohol. Children with this disorder typically suffer from problems in intellectual functioning, CNS dysfunction, cranial feature defects, behavioral problems, growth retardation, and physical abnormalities of the face
  21. inclusion movement
    the integration of individuals with disabilities into regular classroom settings, regardless of the severity of the disability. The school curriculum must be adaptable to meet the individual needs and abilities of these children
  22. organic group
    intellectual disability stemming from clear organic (physical) causes such as brain damage or improper CNS development
  23. residential care
    a living arrangement in which a child whose family or school cannot adequately provide for him or her is cared for in a specific out-of-home setting
  24. self-instructional trainging
    teaching children to use verbal cues to process information, which are initially taught by the therapist or teacher, to keep themselves on task