Behavior and Emotional Disorders Chapter 10

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pntaub
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181986
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Behavior and Emotional Disorders Chapter 10
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2012-11-06 16:07:56
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Chapter 10 Autism Spectrum Disorders Childhood onset Schizophrenia
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Abnormal Child Psychology 5th edition
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  1. autism
    a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by abnormalities in social functioning and in language and communication, and by unusual interests and behaviors.  More specifically, autism affects every aspect of the child's interaction with his or her world, involves many parts of the brain, and undermines the very traits that make us human --- our social responsiveness, ability to communicate, and feelings for other people 
  2. autism spectrum disorders
    autism spectrum disorders includes several pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs), all characterized  by significant impairments in social and communications skills, and stereotyped  patterns of interests and behaviors. These includes autistic disorder, asperger's disorder, and PDD-NOS
  3. pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs)
    a category of disorders characterized by severe and extensive impairments in social interaction and communication skills, along with stereotyped patterns of behaviors, interests, and activities
  4. preservation of sameness
    a characteristic of children with autistic disorder who show an anxious and obsessive insistence on the maintenance of sameness that no one but the child may disrupt. Changes in daily routine, arrangement of objects, or the wording of requests, or the sight of anything broken or incomplete will produce tantrums or despair
  5. autistic disorder
    DSM 4 diagnostic category used to describe children with autism
  6. joint attention
    the ability to coorditnate one's focus of attention on another person and an object of mutual interest
  7. protoimperative gestures
    gestures or vocalizations used to express need, such as pointing to an object that one desires but cannot reach
  8. protodeclarative gestures
    gestures or vocalizations that direct the visual attention of other people to objects of shared interest, such as pointing to a dog; done with the prime purpose of engaging another person in interaction
  9. pronoun reversals
    the repetition of personal pronouns  exactly as heard, without changing them according to the person being referred to. For example, if asked "Are you hungry?" one might reply "You are hungry" rather than "I am hungry."
  10. echolalia
    a child's immediate or delayed parrot-like repetition of words or word combination
  11. pragmatics
    the aspect of language that focuses on its appropriate use in social and communicative contexts
  12. discrete trial training
    a method of teaching readiness skills or other desired behaviors that involves a step-by-step approach of presenting a stumulus and requiting a specific response
  13. incidental training
    a method of teaching readiness skills or other desired behaviors that works to strengthening the behaviors by capitalizing on  naturally occurring opportunities
  14. operant speech training
    a strategy used to help children use language more appropriately. It involves a step-by-step approach that successively increases the child's vocalizations; teaches the meaning of words; and teaches the child to use language expressively to label objects, make verbal requests, and espress desires. Often used with autistic children.
  15. asperger's disorder (AD)
    a PDD characterized by major difficulties in social interaction and unusual patterns of interest and behavior in children with relatively intact cognitive and communication skills
  16. pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specific (PDD-NOS)
    a disorder in which the child displays social, communication, and behavioral impairments associated with PDD, but does not meet the criteria for PDD, schizophrenia or other disorders
  17. childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD)
    a PDD characterized by a significant loss of previously acquired skills, as well as the presence of abnormalities in two of the following three areas of functioning: social interaction, communication, and patterns of behavior, interests, and activities
  18. rett's disorder
    a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by a deceleration of head growth in the early years, a loss of previously acquired purposeful hand skills with subsequent development of stereotyped hand movements, a loss of social engagement, poorly coordinated gait or trunk movements, severe impairments in expressive and receptive language development, and severe psychomotor retardation
  19. theory of mind (ToM)
    the cognition and understanding of mental states that cannot be observed directly, such as beliefs and desires, both in one's self and in others. Also referred to as mentalization

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