chapter 32

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chapter 32
2012-11-06 01:22:54
chapter 32

chapter 32
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  1. auscultation
    the act of listening to body sounds
  2. bruit
    abnormal sound or murmur heard on auscultation of an organ , vessel or gland
  3. clubbing
    an abnormal enlargement of the distal phalanges associated with cyanotic heart disease
  4. colonoscopy
    a procedure in which a fiberoptic scope is used to examine the large intestine
  5. electrocardiogram
    a graphic record of electrical conduction through the heart
  6. emphysema
    the pathologic accumulation of air in the alveoli, oxygen deprivation , in the lungs
  7. gait
    the manner or style of walking
  8. hematopoiesis
    the formation and development of blood cells in the red bone marrow
  9. intercellular
    area between cells
  10. intracellular
    area within the cell membrane
  11. manipulation
    movement or exercising of a body part by means of an externally applied force
  12. mastication
  13. murmur
    abnormal sound heard during auscultation of the heart associated with valve disease
  14. nodules
    small lumps , lesions , or swelling that are felt when the skin is palpated
  15. palpation
    the use of touching during the physical examination
  16. peristalsis
    rhythmic contraction of involuntary muscle lining the gastrointestinal tract
  17. sclera
    the white part of the eye that forms the orbit
  18. transillumination
    inspection of a cavity or organ by passing light through its walls
  19. trauma
    physical injury or a wound caused by external force or violence
  20. vasoconstriction
    contraction of the muscles lining blood vessels , which narrows the lumen
  21. anatomy
    study of the body shaped and structured
  22. physiology
    study of body function
  23. cell is made up of three primary parts
    plasma membrane: surrounds the cells

    cytoplasm: contains the living material that carries on the cells function

    nucleus: contains the genetic code of the cell determines the cell's function
  24. four types of body tissues
    epithelial: lining body cavities

    connective: supports and binds other body tissues

    muscle: produces movement

    nervous: conduct nerve impulese
  25. organs
    composed of two or more types of tissue bound together
  26. systems
    body systems compsed of several organs and their associated structures
  27. blood function
    transport materials and collects wastes throughout the body , white blood cells fight infections
  28. red blood cells
    carry oxygen
  29. platelets
    help form clots
  30. plasma
    carries dissolved nutrients and other materials
  31. cardiovascular system
    veins return deoxygenated blood to the heart which pumps it into the lungs , oxygenated blood is pumped into the aorta and branching arteries to cells trhoughout the body
  32. endocrine system
    produces hormones that circulate in the blood
  33. integumentary system
    protection , temperature regulation
  34. gastrointestinal system
    mastication , swallowing , digestion , absorption of nutrients
  35. lymphatic and immune system
    maintains fluid blance
  36. musculoskeletal system
    movement , posture , heat production , support , protection , mineral storage
  37. nervous systems
    controls body structures to maintain homeostatis , reflex center
  38. reproductive system
    produces hormones , reproduction
  39. respiratory system
    inhalation of oxygen and exhalation of carbon dioxide , acid-base requaltion
  40. sensory system
    helps sense changes in the exteral and internal enivronments through vision , hearing , balance , taste , smell
  41. urinary system
    filters waste material from the blood , excretes waste in the urine
  42. ophthalmoscope
    used to inspect the inner structures of the eye
  43. tongue depressor
    use to hold down the tongue in a throat exam
  44. otoscope
    used to examine the external auditory canal and tympanic membrane
  45. nasal speculum
    inspect the lining of the nose , nasal membrane
  46. tuning fork
    two prong

    produce a humming sound checks the patient auditory acuity
  47. tape measure
    flexible ribbon ruler in inches and feet used to measure the length and head circumference in infants
  48. stethoscope
    listening device

    auscultated the heart and lungs
  49. reflex hammer
    sometimes called percussion hammer

    used to strike the tendons of the knee and elbow to test the neurologic reflexs
  50. methods of examination
    • inspection
    • palpation
    • percussion
    • auscultation
    • mensuration
    • manipulation
  51. fowler's position
    head 90 degrees

    for patients with orthopnea who have difficulty breathing while lying down
  52. semi-fowler's position
    the head of the table is positioned at a 45 degree angle

    postoperative exam

    patients with breathing disorders , elevated temperature or suffering form head truma or pain
  53. supine position
    face upward and the lower legs supported by the exam table
  54. dorsal recumbent position
    lying face upward with the weight distributed primarily to the surface of the back

    flexing the knees flat on the table

    for inspection of rectal , vaginal , and perineal areas , back discomfort
  55. lithotomy position
    vaginal examination , pap smears
  56. sims position
    lateral position

    rectum exam
  57. prone position
    face down

    back and certain surgical procedures