Air masses are formed by large bodies of air stagnating over a uniform surface and acquiring the temperature and moisture characteristics of the surface. Which type pressure system (high) (low) would be more conducive to the formation of an air mass?
The relative moisture content of air masses is denoted by classifying them according to their type source region. (m) and (c) .
Air mass temperature classification, using source regions, from the coldest to the hottest are -
A , P , T , and E .
Arctic, Polar, Tropical, Equatorial
The “w’ classifier for air masses means the air is (colder, warmer) _________ than the surface beneath it.
The “k” classifier for air masses means the air is being (heated, cooled) ____________ from below and is (stable, unstable) _____________.
T F A maritime tropical (mT) or continental tropical (cT) air mass will always be classified as a “w” air mass.
T F A cP mass, after having traveled a long distance over northern waters, would be redesignated as mP.
List the general weather conditions that would be expected with a “k” and “w” classification.
When an air mass is lifted (frontal or terrain), the temperature will (increase, decrease) _______________ and the relative humidity will (increase, decrease) _____________.
T F cP air masses move farther south during winter than summer.
T F When mT air masses dominate the Fort Rucker area in the summer, the stability classifier during the day will be “k” and thunderstorms are possible.
T F The major hazard associated with cT air masses is clear air turbulence.
T F The trajectories of a cold front in the southeastern United States are generally to the southwest.
The term “front” normally refers to the boundary between air masses of different ______________.
The frontal surface always slopes over the (cold, warm) ___________air mass.
The (leading, trailing) _____________ edge of advancing polar air masses are called (cold, warm) _____________ fronts in the northern hemisphere, and they generally move toward the (northeast, southeast) ____________.
leading, cold, southeast
Squall lines sometimes form (ahead, behind) __________ of fast moving (cold fronts, warm fronts) ___________________.
ahead, cold fronts
The slope of a typical cold front is (steep, shallow) ___________ and the associated band of weather is (wide, narrow) _______________.
The type clouds that form with typical cold fronts are predominantly (stratiform, cumuliform) ______________________.
What are the four elements of discontinuity across a front?
c. pressure tendency
In order to stay on course after penetration of a cold front, a heading correction to the (left, right) ____________ should be made.
The trailing edge of a retreating cold air mass is called a (cold, warm) __________ front and generally moves toward the (northeast, southeast) _____________.
The weather band associated with a warm front is generally (wide, narrow) ___________; the associated clouds are primarily (cumuliform, stratiform) ______________; and predominate (ahead, behind) _____________of the surface position of the front.
wide, stratiform, ahead
List four hazards to aviation associated with a warm front.
What type front extends northeastward from the apex and contains the worst elements of both a cold front and a warm front to include embedded thunderstorms? _____________________
The front that moves at five knots or less is a (cold, warm, stationary) ____________ front.
After a cold front passes, the temperature will (increase, decrease) _______________ and the pressure will (rise, fall) __________.
A front depicted in red with smooth bumps is a ___________ front.
Any precipitation that might occur in conjunction with a warm front would probably be (light or heavy) _________, but it would probably be more continuous.
The most severe weather associated with an occluded front would be to the ______________ (give geographic direction) of the apex of the front.
The greatest possibility of frontal fog exists with a (cold, warm) ________ front.
The clear skies after frontal passage are probably a result of a (cold, warm) __________ front.
Increasing cloudiness from what type of clouds can be expected in advance of a cold front ________________.
The hazards of a fast moving cold front include the formation of a _____________ line.
Listed below are characteristic features of either clear or rime ice. To the left of each feature, write “C” if it pertains to clear ice, “R” if it pertains to rime ice, and “B” if it pertains to both types.
______ 0ºC to -10ºC in cumuliform clouds.
______ Formed by freezing rain or drizzle.
______ 0ºC to -20ºC in stratiform clouds.
______ Should be avoided whenever possible.
______ Milky, granular-type ice.
______ -10ºC to -20ºC in cumuliform clouds.
______ causes loss of lift.
T F Ice will not form on the propeller, rotor blades, or rotor head during flight.
When encountering freezing rain, you should expect temperatures above you to be (warmer, colder) _________.
The extreme turbulence associated with mountain waves are found on the (windward, leeward) side of the mountain.
In which stage of thunderstorm development should the most severe turbulence be expected? ______________________________
T F Turbulence in a thunderstorm can be avoided by penetration at an altitude between 4,000 feet and 6,000 feet AGL.
METAR is a scheduled observation taken between ________________ minutes past the hour (a.k.a. hourly observation).
How much sky coverage (or obscuration) is indicated by each of the following contractions?
a. SKC __________________
b. FEW __________________
c. SCT __________________
d. BKN __________________
e. OVC __________________
a. sky clear (0/8)
b. 1/8 to 2/8
c. 3/8 to 4/8
d. 5/8 to 7/8
A ceiling is defined as the (lowest, highest) ____________ condition reported that is either ____________or __________ or ___________________.
lowest, broken, overcast, vertical visibility
T F Only 1/8 of clouds at a given level may still be reported as a ceiling.
At a certain weather station, the observer notes that to the northeast he/she can see 3/4 of a mile, to the southeast 1/2 mile, to the southwest 2 miles, and to the northwest 1/4 of a mile. The observer would report the prevailing visibility at this station as _________ mile.