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what is the incidence of unipoalr affective disorder in industrialized western societies?
What is the incidence of bipolar affective disorder?
is there a sex difference in bipolar affective disorder?
what percent of affective disorder sufferers attempt suicide?
what is the concordance rate of twin stuudies for affective disorders?
- 60 - identical
- 15- fraternal
what is the first antidepressant drug?
4 classes of antidepressants
- 1) monoamine oxidase inhibitors
- 2) tricyclic antidepressants
- 3) lithium
- 4) monamine reuptake inhibitors
iproniazid increases the levels of ___________ by inhibiting the activity of monamine oxidase
monoamines, like serotonicn and norepinephrine
________ is an enzyme that breaks down monoamine neurotransmitters in the cytoplasm
what is the worst side effect of MAO inhibitors?
cheese effect- foods containing tyramine raise blood pressure
what was the first tricyclic antidepressant?
what was the first SSRI?
fewer htp transporters in
- 1) recent ecstacy users
- 2) people with ocd
- 3) people in a romantic obsessive love state
- 4) people with PTSD
statistics for people with fewer htp transporters
- - 20% have 2 short alleles
- -30% have mixed alleles
- -30% have 2 long alleles
- short alleles=less protein
reserpine is a blood pressure medecine that blocks monamines to lower bp, induces _______ in 15%
stress and depression linked to reduced neurogenesis in
- 1) alleviates depression
- 2) reinstates neurogenesis
what percent of bipolar people attempt suicide
success rate of lithium?
70-80 percent on mania in 2 weeks
schizophrenic hallucinations begin in the ____ and spread to the ______
right hemisphere auditory,spread to left hemisphere auditory
where does the "alien" sense in schizophrenia come from
low prefrontal cortex activity
positive symptoms of schizophrenia are reduced by these dopamine receptor agonists
also reduced by this dopamine storage blocker
- chlopromazine, haloperiodol
positive symptoms of schizophrenia are increased by these reuptake blockers
_____ binds to postsynaptic dopamine recptors; blocks dopamine activating ability
side effect of D2 antagonists:
- tardive dyskinesia
- -uncontrolled movement due to d2receptor supersensitivity
an atypical neuroleptic that increases dopamine and serotonin in the PFC, and has a low affinity for d2 receptorscl
problems with d2 hypothesis
- 1) atypical neuroleptics
- 2) take weeks to work
- 3) d2 does not help most patients
- 4) brain abnormalities aare more extensive than d2 receptor rich areas
schizophrenics display ________ at rest and during wisconsinc ard sorting task
schizophrenics display a generally decreased _____ matter, and increased size of ________
onset of schizophrenia:
- 75%: late teens, early 20s
- 25%:: late onset, after age 40
schizophrenia is possibly linked with ______ changes
hormona (lack of estrogen)
possible cause of schizophrenia is exposure to ______ or other viruses in the second trimester, based on the seasonality effect, and increased incidence in urban areas
schizophrenia could be caused by a vitamin deficiency during the ____ trimester, especially this deficiency
releasing and inhibiting hormones are released from hypothalamic neurons into the
hypothalamic pituitary portal system
hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones influence the release of
anterior pituitary hormones
progesterone may increase the activity of this NT
5HT, other monamines
benzodiazepines are ______ agonists; they INCREASE INHIBITION.
when you withdraw from benzodiazepines, you don't have enough endogenous Gaba activity, so you feel
disconnected, not realy ladeda
______ agonists in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex prevents craving and relapse in animals
wy can't we use glutamate to inhibit the reward pathway?
- all learning triggers the reward pathway
- increase glutamate=excitotoxicity
lower resting vmPFC activity----->
more cocaine activity
2 personality traits related to drug addiction
- 1) reward sensitivity
- 2) low inhibition
how does lithium work?
it blocks NMDA receptors (for glutamate)
what is a possible trigger for mania in bipolar patients?
what percent of schizophrenia is chronic?
what percent of schizophrenic hallucinations are auditory?
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