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2012-11-07 10:15:14
17 metabolism

ch 17 metabolism
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  1. sum of all chemical processes in the body.
    is a misture of taking energy to break food molecules down and gets energy from that and release energy
    (energy exchange through out the body)
  2. what are the 2 parts of metabolism
    • anabolism
    • catabolism
  3. this means to build up molecules and requires energy
  4. this means to break down larger molecules into smaller building blocks and releases energy
  5. synthesis means
    building up
  6. what is on of the main anabolism four our body
    protein synthesis
  7. proteins get broken down to amino acids is an example of
  8. carbs is broken down to glucose is an example of
  9. glucose is build up to glycogen is an example of
  10. glycogen is the storage form of
  11. fats are broken dow to fatty acid and you get
  12. what are the orders of source of energy
    • carbs
    • fats
    • proteins
  13. amino acids are broken down to essential and non essential amino acids. what are the numbers
    • 8 essential amino acid
    • 12 non essential amino acid
  14. which amino acid you get from food
    8 essential amino acid
  15. which amino acid can be made by body
    12 non essential amino acid
  16. what are the 2 different type of proteins
    • complete protein and
    • incomplete protein
  17. proteins that contain all amino acids are called
    complete proteins
  18. proteins from vegatables and fruits and nuts are known ast
    incomplete proteins
  19. all animals proteins are considered
    complete proteins
  20. Making fats is called
  21. is the removal of amino for energy
    amino group is removed to allow processin for energy this is known as
  22. 1st step of breaking down carbs is called
  23. glycolysis is the process of breaking down of
    glucose and in the end you get 2 pyrovic acid
  24. During glycolysis you start with 6 carbs and when you break down glucose anaerobic pathway when you get no O2 it is converted to _____ and you get 2 pyruvic acid with how many carbon
    lactic acid and you end up with 3 Carbon each.
  25. aerobic paythway of glycolysis means
    • oxygen is present.
    • acetyl coenzyme A
    • acetylcoA has 2 Carbon (2C)
  26. ATP stands for
    adenosine tri phosphate
  27. ADP stands for
    adensosine di phosphate
  28. ADP + P =
  29. Citric acid cycle aka is
    Kreb's Cycle
  30. where does the Kreb cycle or aka citric acid acycle take place?
    in the mitochondria
  31. what chemical enters the cycle of the kreb's cycle
    acetylcoA enters cycle
  32. krebs cycle starts with 2C + 4 C =6 C. this is the end productc of
    citric acid cycle
  33. oxaloectic acid is
    4 C
  34. which processes is where the majority of ATP is produced and where is the energy really made?
    Electron transport chain (ETC)
  35. How many ATP do you end up with at the end of the ETC.
    34-36 ATP
  36. the mitrochondra has 3 layers. what are the layers
    • inner membrane
    • intermembrance space
    • outer membrane
  37. during the ETC process where is the H transported to
    inside the mitochondria's intermembrane space
  38. Cytochrome transport chain is aka for
    electron transport chain (ETC)
  39. cytochrome =
    • carrier molecule
    • FAD+NAD
  40. why are they called carrier molecules
    because they transport H molecule
  41. refers to breaking down larger molecules into their smaller components
  42. refers to building up molecules
  43. refers to the sum of all chemical processess
  44. processes of breaking down food molecules to extract energy we use that energy to make ATP
    cellular respiration
  45. what are the 3 processes of ATP
    • 1. glycolysis
    • 2. kreb's cycle aka citric acid cycle aka tricarboxylic acid cycle
    • 3. electron transport chain aka cytrochrome transport chain
  46. which process of ATP splits glucose and you get 2 pyruvic acid out of it
  47. which process of ATP is where you produce CO2 and uses Acetyl CoA you get 2 Acetyl CoA and goes into the this cycle to produce ATP
    • Krebs Cycle aka
    • Citric Acid Cycle (CAC) aka
    • Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle (TCA)
  48. which processes of ATP is most effecient and makes the most ATP and CO2 is a waste product
    • Electron Transport Chain (ETC) aka
    • Cytrochrome Transport Chain
  49. fats have glyceral and fatty acid and glyceral gets converted to
    fatty acid is converted to
    • pyruvic acid
    • Acetyl coA
  50. this process of fats from glyceral converts to Pyruvic Acid and fatty acid converts to Acetyl coA is called
    Beta Oxidation
  51. the amino in amino acid refers to
    nitrogen NH3
  52. what does deamination mean
    to get rid of hydrogen
  53. what are the number of kcal/per gram for
    • carbs = 4 kcal/per gram
    • fats = 9 kcal/per gram
    • proteins = 4 kcal/per gram
    • alcohol = 7 kcal/per gram
  54. this term means to get rid of hydrogen
  55. In the ETC what are the carrier molecules
    NAD and FAD
  56. in the ETC what molecule is being carried or transported by NAD and FAD
    Hydrogen (H+)
  57. to much proteins becomes what waste product
  58. burning glucose without oxygen produce
    lactic acid
  59. glycolytic  means
    no oxygen same as anaerobic
  60. oxidation pathway of ETC or aka CAC produce how many ATP
    36-38 ATP
  61. no oxygen or anaerobic pathyway of ETC or aka glycolitic pathway give or produce how many ATP
    2 ATP
  62. glycolitic muscles are what type of muscles
    fast twitch muscles fibers
  63. oxidation muscles are what type of muscles
    slow twitch muscle fibers
  64. ballistic muscles are
    glycolitic musches, fast twitch muscle
  65. muscles in the arms, legs, or larger muscles fatigue easily these are known as
    glycolitic muscles or aka ballistic muscles
  66. the smaller muscles are tonic. maintains muscle tone and are most of our postural muscles like back and neck and have high edurance are called
    slow twitch mucles or oxidation muscles
  67. what are the 2 waste product from the ETC
    • metabolic water and
    • CO2
  68. oxidative phosphorylation happens in which ATP process
  69. what are the 3 types of fats
    • saturated
    • polyunsaturated (puFA)
    • monounsaturated (muFA)
  70. this is the bad fat found in animal products, coconut, palm oil
    saturated fat
  71. this is the healtheir fat like omega 3, omega 6, found in veg. olil, corn, soy bean oil, sunflower, etc
  72. this is the healthiest fat that is best to eat like olive oil, peanuts, avacadoes, canola oil
  73. wha are the 6 different nutrients
    • fats
    • proteins
    • carbs
    • vitamins
    • minerals
    • water
  74. no food for up to 3 days is known as
  75. no food for more than 3 days is known as
  76. Fat soluable vitamins that we store are
    A, D, E, K
  77. water soluable vitamins that we don't store and pee out which we need daily are
    B , C, biotin, choline
  78. this vit. is key to vision, especially night vision also involved in strengthening bones
    vit A
  79. is essential for skin, mucous membranes and is a powerful antioxidant
    vit. E
  80. this is the only vit. that acts as a hormone. is essentional for bones, calcium absorption and is called the sunshine vitamin. Our bodies produces it in the sunlight
    vit D
  81. is essential for blood clotting
    this vit is produced by the gut bacteria in the large intestine
    vit. K
  82. this vit. is associate with health of metabolism, skin, mucous membrane, energy, nervous system
    vit B's
  83. folic acid is what type of vit. and is key for the nervous system and especially for development of fetal health
    vit. B
  84. this vit. is a component of collagen
    stronger in joints, ligaments, bones, and is an antioxidant and boost the immune system. it increases ion absorption and is destroyed by heat
    vit. C
  85. term for elements that comes from the ground (earth)
  86. what is the most common mineral in the body
  87. how many minerals are all together
  88. what are the 2 categories of minerals
    • trace minerals
    • bulk minerals
  89. what mineral is involved in teeth, bones, ATP, parts of DNA, RNA, and is a buffer system in the body that balance pH in the body
    phosphorus (P)
  90. what mineral is involved in teeth, bones, coenzymes, energ production, help relax muscles, maintain bowel function and people needs this supplement
    magnesium (Mg)
  91. what mineral is involved in fluid balance, nerve and muscle signals which allows signal to travel throught out the body and is part of the buffer system
    sodium (Na)
  92. which mineral is most common extra cellular
    sodium (Na)
  93. which mineral is most common intra cellular
    potassium (K)
  94. mineral function is blood-hemoglobin, involved in energy prodiction in the ETC
    Iron (Fe++)
  95. mineral involved in amino acids and is part of DNA, vitamins
    sulfur (S)
  96. mineral is part of thyroid horomone
    iodine (I)
  97. this is a measure of how fast you process food and is measured by how quickly you absorb oxygen
    metabolic rate
  98. what are some ways metabolic rate is measured
    • heat-amount of heat you produce
    • calories-amount of calories you burn
    • oxygen-amount of oxygen consumed
  99. what does the average person burn in calories per hour
  100. excercise activites burns an average of how many calories per hour
  101. what can affect a persons metabolic rate
    muscle mass, thyroid gland, growth hormones, body temp, gender, age, height, stress, food, climate
  102. this is known as our resting metabolic rate and is most accurate 1st thing in the morning and we burn 1200-1800 cal per day on just reg. activities
    basal metabolic rate
  103. heat gain vs heat loss is controlled by
  104. pyrogen is
    fever producing chemical
  105. pyrogen is a chemical that produce fever and is controlled by
    the hypothalamus
  106. antipyretic does what
    reduces fever