Bio 141 Mitchell Test 5

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Bio 141 Mitchell Test 5
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2012-11-07 11:45:21
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test 5
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  1. the neurotoxin from tetanus destroys "_____" "______" to cause continuous muscle contractions?
    Inhibitory
  2. A viral diseast that destoys the moter areas of the spinal cord?
    Polomyelitis
  3. The organism that causes tetanus belongs to which group of organisms?
    Bacteria
  4. What is the mechanism of action for saxitoxin?
    blocks or inhibits acetylcholine receptors
  5. What process resets the chemical gradient and helps maintain the electrical gradient?
    Sodium potassium ATPase Pump
  6. Which band of the sarcomere consists of myosin only?
    H Band
  7. Myofibrils are bundles of?
    Microfiliments
  8. For muscles of very fine control, do their moter neurons supply "few" or "many" muscle fibers?
    few
  9. Two groups of muscles that work agianst each other?
    Antagonist
  10. The condition in which the outside of a cell is positive, the inside negative AND having more soduim outside and more potassium inside is known as?
    Electro-chemical gradient
  11. Tetanus is also known as?
    Lock Jaw
  12. Which of the muscles types is typified as being voluntary?
    skeletal
  13. the myosin heads demonstrate an enzymatic activity that splits "______" thereby releasing energy.
    ATP
  14. Give a muscle type that is typifie as having intercalated discs?
    Cardiac
  15. Poliomyelitis is caused by a "________" ?
    virus
  16. Which type of muscle is found in the walls of the arteries?
    smooth
  17. For smooth muscle, the energy released when a phosphate is remove from ATP on the myosin head does what?
    allows the myosin to bind to the actin
  18. the ablility to receive and respond to stimuli?
    excitablility or responsiveness
  19. the end of a muscle that moves the least?
    orgin
  20. a bundle of muscle fibers is known as?
    Fascicles
  21. a bundle of muscle fibers is known as?
    fascicles
  22. Once the synaptic vesicles migrate to the neurolemma the release "________"?
    acetylcholine
  23. used as "nerve" gas, this inhibits the actions of acetylcholinestrase?
    Sarin
  24. Which of the following is a diagnostic feature (what is unique in appearance, ie not other muscle type demonstates) for skeletal muscle?
    Multinucleated
  25. The ablitly of a cell to shorten its length is known as?
    Contractility
  26. In what part of the nervous system does the strychnine have its major effect?
    Spinal Cord
  27. Do skeletal muscles depend mainly on intracellular or extracellular calcium?
    Intracellular
  28. Once the action potential reaches the terminal, the next step in excitation-contraction is the "____" of calcium?
    influx
  29. a type of paralysis produced by any acetylcholine receptor blocker?
    flacdid
  30. The neurotoxin from botulism prevents the release of?
    acetylcholine
  31. a protein that connects tropomyosin to actin is called?
    troponin
  32. the structures which contain the neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular junction are known as?
    synaptic vesicles
  33. is the calcium source at the terminal of the moter neuron "intracellular" or "extracellular"?
    Extracellular
  34. a muscle type that uses extracellular calcium?
    Cardiac and smooth
  35. a bundle of fascicles is refurred to as?
    muscle
  36. a type of neuron that innervates skeletal muscle fibers is known as?
    Motor Neuron
  37. Where is the concentration of sodium greatest, inside the cell or outside?
    outside
  38. The channeles on the terminal cisternae are concidered to be "___" channels.
    voltage-gated calcium
  39. which class of muscles demonstrate the slowest speed of contraction?
    smooth
  40. a muscle type that uses intracellular calcium?
    skeletal
  41. a term that means mulitinucleated?
    syncytium or syncytial
  42. long polymers of several G actin molecules bound together in a long chain are known as?
    F actin
  43. which neurotransmitter is deficient in a certain areas of the brain for parkinsons disease?
    dopamine
  44. ATP is split into ADP + Pi + Energy in order to "______" the myosin cross bridges.
    Reset
  45. The genus and species of the organism that causes tetanus?
    Clostridium Tetani
  46. Which type of muscle fiber has abundant myoglobin?
    Slow Oxidative
  47. Tiny Structures within cardiac muscle that contain holes through which an impu1se can pass with limited resistance?
    Intercalated discs
  48. For smooth muscles, what structures directly connect to the dense bodies?
    intermediate fibers
  49. the muscle cell is known as?
    muscle fiber
  50. the charge or voltage difference at the motor end plate is known as?
    end plate potential
  51. name the phase of a muscle twich for which the stimulation (AP) first arrives and tentions just begins, but no contraction is seen?
    Latent
  52. What must happen to the relationship between tropmyosin and the active site on actin to allow muscular relaxation?
    topomyosin must cover or inactivate the active site
  53. A protein that binds to calcium as is attached to myosin in smooth muscle?
    calmodulin
  54. Name the neurotransmitter of the neuromuscular junction?
    acetylcholine
  55. Is the soleus is an example of a slow oxidative or fast glycolytic?
    Slow Oxidative
  56. Specialized ducts or channels that connect the surface of muscle cell to its deepest areas are called?
    Transverse Tubules
  57. Muscle stem cells which are mononucleated and fuse to become multinucleated?
    Myoblasts
  58. Fatigue may be caused by a depletion of "____", ATP, and/or acetylcholine?
    Glycogen
  59. Which protein of a muscle cells connects the cell membrane of the muscle cell to certain components of the extracellular matrix?
    Dystrophin
  60. The release of ADP and P from the myosin head causes the "____' "______".
    Power Stroke
  61. the connective tissue covering of an entire muscle is known as?
    Epimysium
  62. Slow oxidative muscles are known as "white" or "red" muscles?
    Red
  63. Which type of muscle fiber has a relatively long "twitch cycle"?
    Slow Oxidative
  64. Proteins that pull the sarcolemma to shorten the cell during contraction of smooth muscles are known as?
    Dense Bodies
  65. A protein within the sarcoplasmic reticulum that binds up Calcium to prevent the calcium from becoming toxic?
    Calsequestrin
  66. The distal, swollen ends of the sarcoplasmis reticulum are known as?
    Terminal Cisternae
  67. Specialized areas on the actin molecules that bind with myosin heads?
    Active sites
  68. The acetylcholine receptors are classified as what type of channel?
    Ligand-gated sodium
  69. Fatige may be caused by an increase in "_______"?
    Lactic Acid
  70. After 30 mins of exercise, what is the predominant sourse of energy for the muscles?
    Aerobic
  71. The erector spinae is an example of a slow oxidative or fast glycolytic?
    Slow Oxidative
  72. What must happen in the moter neuron to allow muscular relaxation?
    Action potential or nerve impulse must stop
  73. a muscle type that is typified as being striated?
    cardiac and skeletal
  74. In order for a muscle cell to relax, the "______" potential stop in the neuron?
    action
  75. Name the third phase of a muscle twitch:
    Period of relaxation
  76. Continuous partial contraction of a muscle due to spinal stimulation is known as?
    Muscle tone
  77. A toxic by-product of anaerobicfermentation/respiration that produces pain?
    lactic acid
  78. Do muscles of very fine control have small or large motor units?
    small
  79. what compound is needed for the re-uptake of acetylcholine?
    ATP
  80. A type of repiration that does NOT require oxygen to take place?
    anaerobic
  81. a process by which muscles contract just after death, however, for a period of time are unable to relax?
    Rigor Mortis

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