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  1. Hypoechoic linear structure ( Dome shaped) between lungs and abdomen
  2. Homogeneous hyper/isoechoic; not inflated with air
  3. 4ch, 1/3 of chest, RV anterior chamber
  4. One or both lungs decreased development (may be lethal)
    Pulmonary hypoplasia
  5. Causes of pulmonary hypoplasia
    • Restricted chest cavity (skeletal dysplasia)
    • Oligohydramnios with PROM and GU
    • Chest masses (compression)
    • Pleural effusion
  6. What predicts hypoplasia with rib dysplasia?
    Thoracic circumference
  7. CCAM
    Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation
  8. Benign hamartomatous lung tumor by abnormal proliferation of bronchioles; communicates with tracheobronchial tree
    • CCAM:
    • Unilateral
    • Large causes mediastinal shift
  9. CCAM is associate with
    • Polyhydramnios
    • Hydrops
    • Hypoplasia
    • Heart failure
  10. "Macro cystic"
    Variable size and shaped cysts >2cm ( single or multiple)
    • Type 1 CCAM
    • DDx: bronchogenic cysts
  11. "Macro Micro"
    Large echogenic lung with <2cm cysts (mass like)
    • Type 2 CCAM
    • DDx: CHD
  12. "Micro cystic"
    Large echogenic lung < 0.5cm cysts
    *associated with hydrops
    • Type 3 CCAM
    • DDx: sequestration
  13. Mass of pulmonary parenchyma separated from normal lung; does not communicate
    *receives blood supply from systemic circulation
    Echogenic mass, wedge shaped (associated with hydrops and Polyhydramnios )
    • Pulmonary sequestration
    • DDx: CCAM 2
  14. Cystic structure lined by epithelium lung
    Associated with other foregut anomalies
    Uni/Multilocular cyst, mediastinal shift
    • Bronchogenic cyst
    • DDx: CCAM 1, pleural effusion
  15. Portion of abdominal contents protrude into chest cavity ( intestines, stomach, liver)
    * mediastinal shift
    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH)
  16. Posterolateral defect (commonly lt side)
    Heart deviated to right
    Foramen of bochdalek (CDH)
  17. Partial or complete absence of central diaphragm behind sternum
    Foramen of Morgagni (CDH)
  18. CDH associated with
    • Pulmonary hypoplasia
    • Anencephaly (CNS defects)
    • Trisomy 18 & 21
  19. Lack if muscle causing abdominal contents to rise up to chest
    • Eventration of diaphragm
    • Can cause hypoplasia
  20. Secondary pleural effusion associated with
    • Downs
    • Turners
  21. Echogenic bilaterally enlarge lungs
    Flattened diaphragm
    Ascites, Polyhydramnios, fluid filled trachea
    Tracheal atresia
  22. Anterior chest wall fusion defect (heart outside cavity)
    Ectopia cordis
  23. Absent sternum
    Anterior diaphragm defect
    Pericardial defect
    Ectopia cordis
    Pentalogy of Cantrell
  24. Absent segment of esophagus
    Small or absent stomach, Polyhydramnios
    • Esophageal atresia (TE fistula)
    • Associated with:
    • VACTERL, trisomies, heart defects
  25. Most common bowel obstruction
    "Double bubble sign"
    • Duodenal atresia and associated with:
    • Cardiovascular anomalies
    • Trisomy 21
    • Other bowel anomalies
    • Polyhydramnios
  26. Dilated small bowel will?
  27. Colon should be less than? Small bowel should be less than?
  28. Obstruction of small bowel by meconium due to cystic fibrosis
    Appears as echogenic bowel
    Meconium ileus
  29. Bowel obstruction leading to perforation which leads to?
    • Meconium peritonitis
    • Bright echogenic mass
    • Polyhydramnios
  30. This is associated with cystic fibrosis, chromosomal abnormal, TORCH, meconium peritonitis
    Echogenic bowel
  31. Dilation of umbilical vein after entering abdomen
    Umbilical vein varix
  32. Right umbilical vein travels along abdomen and turns towards stomach instead of away
    Persistent right umbilical vein
  33. Hepatic calcifications caused by:
    • TORCH
    • Emboli
    • Ishemic damage with necrosis
  34. Midline defect of anterior abdominal wall with the umbilicus
    • Omohalocele (bowel or liver organs)
    • Covered by membrane
  35. Small omphaloceles containing bowel are at risk for?
    Chromosomal abnormalities
  36. Large omphaloceles are associated with?
    • Beckwith Wiedemann
    • Petalogy of Cantrell
    • Trisomy 18
    • Ascites
  37. Defect in abdominal wall to right of cord insertion ( bowel loops float freely)
  38. Abdominal organs lie in sac outside cavity, covered by amnion, directly attached to placenta
    Body stalk anomaly
  39. Failure of closure of bladder, lower urinary tract, symphysis, rectus muscles, skin
    • Bladder exstrophy
    • Absent bladder with soft tissue anterior mass
    • Malformation of genetalia
  40. Bladder exstrophy
    Imperforate anus
    Spina Bifida
    Coacal exstrophy
  41. Omphalocele
    Macroglossia (large tongue)
    Viseromegaly (large organs)
    Beckwith- Wiedemann syndrome
  42. Ureteral buds (wolffian) become:
    • Ureters
    • Renal pelvis
    • Calyces
    • Collecting tubules
  43. Urine production begins at?
    11 weeks
  44. Caudal end of cloacal forms urethera and bladder neck, allantois forms rest of?
    Bladder embryology
  45. Male genetalia formed when testosterone is present at
  46. Absent kidneys
    Absent bladder
    • Bilateral renal agenesis
    • (Can occur unilateral too but may be mistaken in utero)
  47. Bilateral renal agenesis
    Pulmonary hypoplasia
    Abnormal hand and feet
    Facial anomalies
    Potters syndrome
  48. Concequence of severe Oligohydramnios
    Potters sequence
  49. Distension if renal pelvis (>5mm) and calyces with urine due to obstruction, reflux, or ureterocele
  50. Dilated renal pelvis only
    Grade 1 hydronephrosis
  51. Dilated renal pelvis and calyces visible
    Grade 2 hydronephrosis
  52. Dilated renal pelvis and calyces
    Grade 3 hydroneohrosis
  53. Grade 3 and parenchymal thinning
    Grade 4 hydronephrosis
  54. Membranes that occur in the prostatic urethra that obstructs flow of urine
    Large distended bladder "keyhole"
    • Posterior urethral valves obstruction (PUV)
    • Precursor to Prune Belly syndrome
  55. Obstruction at Junction of renal pelvis and ureter
    Usually unilateral
    • Ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction
    • *Most common cause of neonate obstruction
  56. Usually due to duplicated renal collecting system (upper pole obstructs)
    Associated with uretrocele
    Ureterovesticular junction (UVJ) obstruction
  57. Cystic dilation of Intravesticular portion of ureter
  58. ARPKD(infantile polycystic kidney disease)
    • Defect of collecting duct (cortex)
    • Bilateral
    • Enlarged echogenic kidney
    • Oligohydramnios
    • Absent bladder
  59. IPKD is associated with
    • Meckel-Gruber syndrome (IPKD, polydactyl, encephalocele)
    • Robert's syndrome
    • Trisomy 13
  60. Multiple lesions do not communicate with collecting system
    Loss of reniform shape
  61. Deficiency in abdominal wall muscles
    Undescended testes
    Large bladder
    Urinary tract obstruction
    Associate with pulmonary hypoplasia
    • Prune belly syndrome
    • "Eagle Barrett syndrome"
  62. Solid mass in renal fossa
    • Nephroblastoma
    • "Wilms tumor"
  63. Benign
    Large solid mass arising from kidney
    • Mesoblastic nephroma
    • *Most common renal tumor in utero
  64. Unilateral
    Complex mass near upper pole of kidney; calcifications
    • Neroblastoma "adrenoblastoma"
    • *Most common abdominal tumor in newborns
  65. Fluid in scrotum
Card Set:
2012-11-08 06:04:02

Midterm ob Quiz 1 and 2 Chest Pathology GI Abnormalities GU Abnormalities
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