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What are the 4 functions of the Immune System ?
- 1) Immunological Recognition
- 2) Immune Effector Functions
- 3) Immune Regulation
- 4) Immunological Memory
- -presence of infections has been detected
- -white blood cells do this as part of the innate immune response and lymphocytes do this as part of the adaptive immune response
Immune Effector Functions
- contains the infection and eliminates the infection if possible
- Lymphocytes, other WBC's, blood proteins, antibodies do this
- Self Regulation
- Prevents allergies and autoimmune disease
The adaptive immune systen can remember being exposed to an infectious agent and enable a stronger response to the agent upon reinfection.
Innate vs. Adaptive Immune System
Innate Immune System - General/ non-specific protection
Adaptive Immune System -has a memory and recognizes a previous foreign object, it can recognize and attack viruses.
Innate Immune System
what is the 1st line of defense?
- skin ( 2 meters into the human body)
- mucous membranes (400 meters in human body)- example mucosa of lungs, GI tract
Innate Immune System
what is the 2nd line of defense?
- Phagocytes (monocytes, neutrophils, macrophages)
- Natural Killer Cells
- Compliment Proteins (>20 different proteins)
What are the 5 types of leukocytes?
- Lymphocytes (agranulocytes)
- Monocytes (Agranulocytes, precursor to macrophages)
What are the 3 types of Lymphocytes
What are cytokines
- chemical messengers in the form of proteins that are released from leukocytes and sent to the blood to send immune cells to site of infection.
- they promote inflammation, fever and stimulate proliferation of immune cells to fight infections.
What are the functions of IgG?
- Binds with antigens of bacteria or viruses
- Activates other immune cells (macrophages, neutrophils, NK cells) that kills the foreign antigen
What are the Functions of IgM?
- One of the 1st antibodies produced by B cells after antigen appears
- Protects by activating compliment system and binding to viruses and neutralizing htem
What is the "open window effect"
- Exercise for longer then 90 minutes makes an athlete susceptible to viruses, bacteria and fungi due to a suppressed immune system.
- * see study guide
What are the three major functions of the skeletal muscle ?
- Force production for movement
- Force production for postural support
- Heat generation for maintenance of body temperature
Skeletal muscle made of multi-nucleated cells or fibers that produce a muscular force
dark portion of the sacromeres that contain mostly myosin
light portion of the sacromeres that contains mostly actin
a thin sheet of structural protein that is at the center of each I-band it is the region where actin myofilaments connect and it creates a continuous relationship between every sarcomere of the myofibril.
portion of the myosin filament with no actin overlap during rest. It disappears during concentric contraction.
a myosin head and tail bridge the gab between actin and myosin to pull actin monofilaments inward and attach to active sites when uncovered
The functional unit of the myofibril. Shorten during concentric contractions, lengthens during eccentric contractions.
numerous thread-like structures that contain the contractile proteins actin and myosin.
The thin filament of a myofibril that serves as the structural protein of muscle that works with myosin to produce muscular contraction
Contractile protein in the thick filament of a myofibril that contains the cross bridge that can bind to actin and split ATP to cause tension development (contraction)
area where actin is active as a result of a myosin attachment
structure formed by 2 actin strands that contains troponin and topomyosin
A regulatory protein that is oblong and is located every 7th actin. It has a high affinity for calcium. IT is a protein associated with actin and tropomyosin that binds to calcium and initiates the movement of tropomyosin actin to allow the myosin cross-bridge to touch the actin and initiate contraction.
A filamentus regulatory protein that runs down the length on the actin adn myosin filaments and covers the active sites of actin at rest. When stimulated they uncover the active sites allowing myosin to bind and muscle contraction to occur. It is important in starting and stopping muscle contraction.
Motor End Plate
Pocket formed by the sarcolemma in a neuromuscular junction
the site where the motor neuron and muscle cell meet
the cell membrane that surrounds each individual muscle cell
end of the nerve pathway at an axon
nerve fibers (sensory fibers) that carry neural information back to CNS from the muscle cell
nerve fibers (motor fibers) that carry neural information from the CNS to the peripheral nervous system.
What happens during a Concentric Muscle contraction
- Sarcomere: Shortens
- H-zone: Narrows and disappears when fully contracted
- I- band: Narrows
- A-band: Doesn't change
- Myofibrils: Doesn't change
What happens during a Eccentric Muscle Contraction
- Sarcomere: Lengthens
- H-zone: Widens and reappears
- I-band: Widens
- A-band: Doesn't Change
- Myofibrils: Doesn't Change
the point at which the terminal branch of the neuron fiber interacts with the muscle fiber
The area at the end of a terminal branch where neurotransmitters are released into the synaptic cleft.
Synaptic (neuromuscular) cleft
the area between the pre-synaptic membrane and the moor end plate where the neurotransmitter acetylocholine is released and travels to the receptor sites on the motor end plate.
Motor end plate
folds of the sarcolemma, region of the cell membrane that interacts with the terminal branch of the alpha motor neuron. More surface area means more surface area for binding the nerve signal to the receptors.
contains neurotransmitters (acetylecholine) they bind to receptors on the motor end plate and open to release acetylecholine.
Different fiber compositions
- Activity Level %Slow fibers %Fast fibers
- Distance runners 70-80 20-30
- Track Sprinters 25-30 70-75
- Sedentary Individuals 47-53 47-53
What are the general functions of the nervous system ?
- working with the endocrine system to control the internal environment
- controlling voluntary movement
- controlling reflex movement
- programming of spinal cord reflexes
- assimilation of experiences necessary for memory and learning
What does a motor unit consist of?
- a motor unit consists of a motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers of the same type innervated by that single motor neuron.
- it follows the all-or-none principle when faced with a stimulus
What is the force-velocity curve?
It shows the relationship that exists between force and velocity when viewing fast and slow twitch muscle fibers.
Muscle fiber hypertrophy
an increase in the size of existing muscle fibers, which forms more myofibrils and monofilaments (actin and myosin)
an increase in the number of cells in the tissue
Sensory units that detect muscle stretch
- knee jerk reflex
- a stretch reflex that activates the muscle spindle and intrafusal fibers
specialized muscle fibers that detect stress
What are GTOs?
are found in the tendon and continuously monitor tension produced by muscle contraction.
How do GTOs work?
they respond to excessive pressure that develops in the joint and sends a message via a sensory neuron to inhibitory neurons in the spinal cord that send IPSPs to the alpha-motor neuron stopping the muscle contraction.
How do GTO's protect the muscle?
By stopping the contraction to prevent injury or tearing of muscle fibers
Whats an electromyography measure?
An EMG measures electrical activity of the muscle