BIO 10

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Author:
trainingliz89
ID:
182120
Filename:
BIO 10
Updated:
2012-11-06 18:50:55
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Organelles
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Description:
objective set 10
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  1. Cell Wall
    • Only in plant, fungi and bacteria
    • Outer layer, rigid & strong, made of cellulose
    • Function is for support, growth and allows H2O, O2, CO2 to diffuse in & out of cell
  2. Cell Membrane
    • In all cells
    • Plant - inside cell wall
    • Animal - outer layer; cholesterol
    • Double layer of phospholipids with proteins
    • Selectively permeable
    • Support
    • Protection
    • Controls movement of materials in/out of cell
    • Barrier between cell and its environment
    • Maintains homeostasis
  3. Nucleus
    • All except prokaryotes
    • Large, oval
    • May contain 1 or more nucleoli
    • Holds DNA
    • Controls cell activities
    • Contains the hereditary material of the cell
  4. Nuclear Membrane
    • All except prokaryotes
    • Surrounds nucleus
    • Double membrane
    • Selectively permeable
    • Controls movement of materials in/out of nucleus
  5. Cytoplasm
    • All cells
    • Clear, thick, jellylike material (cytosol)
    • Organelles found inside cell membrane
    • Contains the cytoskeleton fibers
    • Supports and protects cell organelles
  6. Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • All except prokaryotes
    • Network of tubes or membranes
    • Smooth w/o ribosomes (lipid synthesis, metabolism)
    • Rough with embedded ribosomes (protein synthesis, exported out of cell)
    • Connects to nuclear envelope & cell membrane
    • Carries materials through cell
    • Aids in making proteins
  7. Ribosome
    • All cells
    • Small bodies free or attached to rough ER
    • Made of rRNA & protein
    • Location for all protein synthesis
  8. Mitochondria
    • All cells except prokaryotes
    • Peanut shaped 
    • Double membrane
    • Outer membrane smooth
    • Inner membrane folded into cristae
    • Breaks down sugar (glucose) molecules to release energy
    • Site of aerobic cellular respiration
  9. Vesicles and Vacuoles
    • Both are membrane bound organelles
    • Vesicles are small (ex. size of mitochondria)
    • Vacuoles are large (ex. size of nucleus), store food and water
  10. Lysosome
    • Vesicle containing digestive enzymes
    • Recycling center for cell, breaks down molecules
    • Destroys foreign bodies
    • NOT found in plant cells
    • Tay Sachs Disease- Defective enzyme w/in Lysosome
  11. Chloroplast
    • Plants and algae
    • Green, oval  containing chlorophyll (green pigment)
    • Double membrane with inner membrane modified into sacs called thylakoids
    • Stacks of thylakoids called grana & interconnected
    • Gel like innermost substance called stroma
    • Uses energy from sun to make food (glucose) for the plant
    • Process called photosynthesis
    • Release oxygen
  12. Nucleolus
    • All cells except prokaryotes
    • Found inside the cell's nucleus
    • May have more than one
    • Disappear during cell division
    • Make ribosomes
    • Site of rRNA synthesis
  13. Golgi Apparatus
    • All cells except prokaryotes
    • Series of phospholipid bi layers
    • Alter glycolipids and glycoproteins embedded in vesicle membranes
    • Release finished vesicles into cytosol or to motor molecules for transport
  14. Cilia
    • Animal cells, Protozoans
    • Have a 9-2 arrangement of microtubules
    • Short, but numerous
    • Movement
  15. Flagellum
    • Bacterial cells & Protozoans
    • Have a 9-2 arrangement of microtubules
    • Long, but few in number
    • Movement
  16. Centrioles
    • Animal cells
    • Paired structures near the nucleus
    • Made of a cylinder of microtubule pairs
    • Separate chromosome pairs during mitosis
  17. Cytoskeleton
    • All cells
    • Made of microtubules 7 microfilaments
    • Strengthen cell & maintains the shape
    • Moves organelles within the cell
  18. Chromatin
    • Composed of DNA, protein, and small amount of RNA
    • DNA accessible for transcription or replication
    • Dificult to transport
    • Present between cell divisions
  19. Peroxisome
    • Vesicle containing digestive enzymes
    • Detox Center for cell
    • Breaks down long chain fatty acids
  20. Central Vacuole
    • Large Vacuole
    • Provides structural support for the cell
    • Storage of water and minerals
    • Regulate physiology of some plant processes

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