PSYC103 Test 3

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PSYC103 Test 3
2012-11-06 20:18:06

Test 3
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  1. Personality
    an individual's characteristic style of behaving, thinking, or feeling
  2. Explanations of personality differences
    prior events and anticipated events
  3. self-report
    series of answers to a questionnaire that asks people to indicate the extent to which sets of statements or adjectives accurately describe their own behavior or mental state
  4. arturial method
    used to gauge personality even when the self-report items are not clearly related in content to the characteristic being measured
  5. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
    a well-researched, clinical questionnaire used to asses personality and psychological problems
  6. Projective Techniques
    standard series of ambiguous stimuli designed to elicit unique responses that reveal inner aspects of an individual's personality
  7. Rorschach Inkblot Test
    prrojective personality test in which individual interpretations of the meaning of a set of unstructured inkblots are analyzed to identified a respondent's inner feelings and interpret his or her personality structure
  8. Problems with Rorschach Test
    open to the subjective interpretation and theoretic biases of examiner
  9. Thematic Apperception Test
    projective test in which respondents reveal underlying motives, concerns, and the way they see the social world through the stories they make up about ambiguous pictures of people
  10. Trait
    relatively stable desposition to behave in a particular and consistent way
  11. Big Five Factor Model
    • Conscientioiusness
    • Agreeableness
    • Neuroticism
    • Openness to Experience
    • Extraversion
  12. Behavioral activation system
    activates approach behavior in response to the anticipation of reward
  13. bheavioral inhibiation system
    a stop system inhibits behavior in response to stimuli signaling punishment
  14. psychodynamic approach
    personality is formed by needs, strivings, and desires largely operating outside of awareness-motives that can produce emotional disorders
  15. dynamic unconscious
    active system encompassing a lifetime of hidden memories, the person's deepest instincts and desires, and the person's inner struggle to control these forces
  16. id
    the part of the mind containing the drives present at birth; it is the source of our bodily needs, wants, desires, and impulses, particularly our sexual and aggressive drives; operates to the pleasure principle
  17. ego
    component of personality, developed through contact with the external world, that enables us to deal with life's practical demands; reality principle
  18. superego
    mental system that reflects the internalization of cultural rules, mainly learned as parents exercise their authority; consists of a set of guidelines, internal standards, and other codes of conduct that regulate and control our behaviors, thoughts, and fantasies
  19. Defense Mechanism
    unconcious coping mechanisms that reduce anxiety generated by threates from unacceptable impulses
  20. Rationalization
    supplying a reasonable-sounding explanation for unacceptable feelings and behavioral to conceal one's underlying feelings or motives
  21. Reaction Formation
    unconcioiusly replacing threatening inner wishes and fantasies with an exaggerated version of the opposite
  22. Projection
    attributing one's own threatening feelings, motives, or impulses to another person or group
  23. Regression
    ego deals with internal conflict and perceived threat by reverting to an immature behavior or earlier stage of development
  24. Displacement
    Shifting unacceptable wishes or drives to a neutral or less threatening alternative
  25. Identification
    unconciously take on characteristics of another person who seems more powerful or better able to cope
  26. Sublimation
    channeling unacceptable sexual or aggressive drives into socially acceptable and culturally enhancing activities
  27. Psychosexual stages
    Distinct early life stages through which personality is formed as children experience sexual pleasures from specific body areas and cargeivers redirect or interfere with those pleasures
  28. fixation
    person's pleasure-seeking drives become stuck, or arrested, at that psychosexual stage
  29. oral stage
    pleasures and frustrations associated with the mouth, sucking, and being fed
  30. anal stage
    pleasures and frustations associated with the arms, retention and expulsion of feces and urine, toilet training
  31. phallic stage
    pleasure, conflict, andn frustration associated with the phallic genital region as well as coping with powerful incestuous feelings of love, hate, jealously, and conflict
  32. Oedipus conflict
    a developmental experience in which a child's conflicting feelings towards the opposite sex parent are usually resolves by identifying with the same-sex parent
  33. latency stage
    primary focus is on the further development of intellectual, creative, interpersonal, and athletic skills
  34. genital stage
    mature adult personality with a capacity to love, work, and relate to others in a mutually staisfying and reciprocal manner
  35. self-actualizing tendency
    human motive toward realizing our inner potential; pursuit of knowledge, the expression of one's creativy, the quest for spiritual enlightenment
  36. hierarchy of needs
    model of essential human needs arraged according to their priority, in which basic psychological and safety needs must be satisfied before a person can afford to focus on higher-level psychological needs
  37. self-actualization
    the ned to be good, to be fully alive, and to find the meaning of life
  38. Existential approach
    regards personality as governed by an individual's ongoing choices and decisions in the context of the realities of life and death
  39. social congitive approach
    views personality in terms of how the person thinks about the situations encountered in daily life and behaves in response to them
  40. person-situation controversy
    the question of whether behavior is caused more by personality or by situational factors
  41. Personal constructs
    dimensions people use in making sense of their experiences
  42. Outcome expectancies
    a person's assumptions about the likely consequences of a future behavior
  43. locus of control
    a person's tendency to perceive the control of rewards as internal to the self or external in the envirnment
  44. self-concept
    a person's explicit knowledge of his own behaviors, traits, and other personal characteristics
  45. self-verification
    tendency to seek evidence to confirm the self-concept
  46. self-esteem
    the extent to which an individual likes, values, and accepts the self
  47. self-serving bias
    people tend to take credit for their success but downplay responsibility of their failures
  48. narcissism
    a grandiouse view of the self combined with a tendency to seek out admiration from and exploit others
  49. Social psychology
    study of the causes and consequences of sociality
  50. agression
    behavior whose purpose is to harm another
  51. frustration aggression hypothesis
    animals aggress when and only when their goals are frustrated
  52. Cooperation
    behavior by two or more individuals that leads to mutual benefit
  53. group
    a collection of people who have something in common that distinguishes them from others
  54. prejudice
    positive or negative evaluation of another person based on their group membership
  55. discrimination
    positive or negative behavior toward another person based on their group memebership
  56. deindividuation
    immersion in a group causes people to become less concenrend with thier personal values
  57. diffusion of responsibility
    individuals feel diminished responsibility for their actions because they are surrounded by others who are acting the same way
  58. altruism
    behavior that benefits another without benefiting oneself
  59. kin selection
    process by which evolution selects for individuals who cooperate with thier relatives
  60. reciprocal altruism
    behavior that benefits another with the expectation that those benefits  will be returned in the future
  61. mere exposure effect
    tendency for the frequency of exposure to a stimulus to increase liking
  62. passionate love
    experience involving feelings of euphoria, intimacy, and intense sexual attraction
  63. companionate love
    experience involving affection, trust, and concern for partner's well-being
  64. social exchange
    hypothesis that people remain in relationships as long as they perceive a favorable ratio of costs to benefits
  65. comparison level
    cost-benefit ratio that people believe they deserve or could attain in another relationship
  66. Equity
    state of affairs in which the cost-benefit ratios of two partners are roughly equal
  67. Social influence
    ability to control another person's behavior
  68. norms
    customary standards for behavior that are widely shared by members of a culture
  69. normative influence
    another person's behavior provides information about what is appropriate
  70. norm of reciprocity
    unwritten rule that people should benefit those who have benefited them.
  71. door in the face technique
    strategy that uses reciprocating concessions to influence behavior
  72. conformity
    tendency to do what others do simply because others are doing it, and it results in part from normative influence
  73. Obedience
    tendency to do what powerful people tell us to do
  74. Attitude
    enduring positive or negative evaluation of an object or event
  75. belief
    enduring piece of knowledge about an object or event
  76. informational influence
    another person's behavior provides information about what is good or right
  77. persuasion
    a person's attitudes or beliefs are influenced by a communication from another person
  78. systematic persuasion
    the process by which attitudes or belief are changed by appeals to reason
  79. heuritic persuation
    process which attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to habit or emotion
  80. foot in the door technique
    involves a small request followed by a larger reques
  81. cognitive dissonance
    an unpleasant state that arises when a person recognizes the inconsistency of his or her actions, attitudes or beliefs
  82. Social cognition
    process by which people come to understand others
  83. stereotyping
    process by which we draw inferences about others based on knowledge of the categories to which they belong
  84. Perceptual confirmation
    tendency for people to see what they expect to see
  85. self-fulfilling prophecy
    the tendency for people to cause what they expect to see
  86. subtyping
    tendency for people who are faced with disconfirming evidence to modify their stereotype rather than abandon them
  87. correspondence bias
    tendency to make a dispositonal attribution even when a person's behavior was caused by the situation
  88. actor observer effect
    tendency to make situational attributions for our own behaviors while making dispositional attributions for the identical behavior of others