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What is a Paleontologist?
A scientist that studies life from the past
What is the youngest layer in a sedimentary rock?
The oldest layer in a sedimentary rock is located where?
How are Sedimentary rocks made?
- 1. Erosion
- 2. Deposition - rocks fall down
- 3. Compaction
- 4. Cementation
What is found in the layers of sediment?
What is a fossil?
remains or trace of an organism (plant or animal) that was once alive.
After many years, the plant and animal remains turn into what?
Name three types of fossil fues?
- 1. Coal
- 2. Oil
- 3. Natural Gas
What two process take place on loose sediment which cause it to hold together?
Rocks are composed (made) of how many substances?
One or more
How are Igneous Rocks formed?
Molten (lava) masses (rocks) within the Earth
How are Sedimentary Rocks formed?
- 1. Particles (sediments) from streams, lakes or oceans
- 2. Chemical action
- 3. Wind
How are Metamorphic Rocks formed?
Altering (changing) Igneous or Sedimentary rocks by heat or pressure
Name some Igneous Rocks
- 1. Granite
- 2. Obsidian
- 3. Pumice
- 4. Basalt
- 5. Porphyry
Name some Metamorphic Rocks:
- 1. Gneiss
- 2. Schist
- 3. Slate
- 4. Marble
- 5. Quartzite
Name some Sedimentary Rocks:
- 1. Conglomerate
- 2. Gypsum
- 3. Shale
- 4. Limestone
- 5. Sandstone
When does the rock cycle end?
Never - it is always changing
What is a Sediment?
Small solid pieces of material that come from rocks or living things
How does erosion occur?
Running water or wind loosen and carry the pieces (fragments) away
What is Deposition?
When sediment (pieces) settle out of the wind or water carrying it
What is Compaction?
Process of pressing the sediments (pieces) together
Think of Papa and Yaya's trash compactor
What is Cementation?
When the minerals crystallize and "glue" the sediment (pieces) together
What are the three major groups of sedimentary rocks?
- 1. Clastic - squeezed together
- 2. Organic - plant and animal remains
- 3. Chemical - minerals dissolved in a solution crystallize
How is coal formed?
Chemical and physical changes (heat) turned plants and animals into coal and oil
What is Reflection?
Bouncing of light from a surface
Like a mirror or plastic
What is Refraction?
When light bends as it is transported (moves) through something
example: microscopes and telescopes
How does light travel?
Straight until it hits something or is pulled down by gravity
What causes waves to change direction?
They slow down
How does a lens work?
- 1. It refracts light
- Concave make things look smaller
Our eyes are convex
What is refracted
Bent light passing from one kind of matter to another
Example: straw, spoon, water glass, glasses, cameras
Name four things light can do?
- 1. Reflected
- 2. Refracted
- 3. Absorbed
- 4. Transmitted
What does transmitted mean?
Passes through objects
What does absorbed mean?
Catches the light and turns it into heat
Example: Black asphalt (street)
What part of the eye detects (sees) light
What happens to light with a transparent object?
It passes through with almost no change.
What happens to light with a translucent object?
Some light passes through but you can't see all of the details clearly.
Example: Wax Paper
What happens to light with an opaque object?
No light can pass through it so you can't see anything.
Light is a form of what?
What is heat conduction?
transfer of heat
example of "butter"
What is the wavelength of sound waves?
the distance from the crest (top) of one wave to the crest (top) of the next wave
What is the frequency of sound waves?
the number of waves that pass a point in each sound
What is the amplitude?
The measure of the amount of energy in a sound wave
What is the compression of sound waves?
small pieces crowded together that make an upward curve
what is a rarefactions of sound waves?
small pieces spread apart that make a downward curve
High frequency sound wave will be
Soft sound wave will...
have lower waves than a loud sound wave
What is a renewable resource?
A resource that can be replaced within a fairly short time
Example: Trees, Fish
What is a non-renewable resource?
Example: Gas, Oil, Coal
What is electrical energy
Energy carried by electricity
What is radiant energy
Energy that travels as waves and can move through space
Example: Light, Sun, X-Rays
What are examples of Simple Machines?
- 1. Pulley
- 2. Lever
- 3. Wedge
- 4. Wheel and axle
- 5. Screw