Latin Exam 2

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bosselaj
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Latin Exam 2
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2012-11-06 20:47:00
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Latin Exam 2
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  1. Substantive Clauses
    • subordinate clauses that stand in some case relationship to the main verb
    • ex. serving as the direct object(accusative) or subject(nominative)
    • They act like a noun, an are similar to substantive adjectives
    • Introduced by ut, quin, quod, ne, ni, and ne non
    • Usually in the subjunctive
    • After verbs of ordering (imperio), urging (adhortor), seeking (tendo), permitting (concedere), hindering (officio), deciding (constituere), attempting (temptare), striving (laboro), wishing (opto), fearing (vereor), or happening (accido)
    • The action often seems in complete without the clause. ex. "I order them..." (to do what"
    • Sometimes accusative + infinitive
    • Follow rules for the sequence of tenses
    • Caesar imperavit eis ne hoc facerent. "Caesar ordered them not to do this."
  2. Purpose and Result Substantive Clauses
    • Used as nouns.
    • Cupio ne venias. "I desire that you not come." "I don't want you to come."
    • Laborabat ut ex urbe discederet. "He was trying to depart from the city."
  3. Quod Substanvive Clauses
    • Usually in the nominative case
    • Quod = because or which (relative)
    • Often comes at the beginnig of a sentence.
    • Quod homines colloquimur inter nos praestamus feris. "The fact that we humans speak to each other causes us to excel beasts"
    • Verb mainly in teh indicative
  4. Indirect Speech - Substantive Clause
    Subject accusative and infinitive
  5. Conditional statement
    • Composed of two parts: protasis (the thing set up beforehand) and apodosis (the thing that comes from/the thing that results)
    • Protasis - if clause - subordinate to the apodosis - then clause
    • The protasis introduced by si, sin = si non, nisi, etiam, si, estsi, tametsi, tamenetsi, or any relative pronoun
    • Has 3 main types
  6. Open Condition
    • The fulfillment of the condition is open - nothing is implied about its truthfulness or accuracy
    • indicative in protasis, indicative in apodosis
    • Future or Future Perfect tense
    • Almost always in the 2nd person
    • Si vales, bene est.
    • Si feceris id, magnum habebo gratiam
  7. General Condition
    • Shows a supposition which may not be fulfilled - likely but not certain
    • Present or Perfect Subjunctive in protasis, and usually also in apodosis
    • Si vir bonus habeat hanc vim, hac vi non utatur
  8. Contrary-to-Fact Condition
    • Implies a situation which is contrary to known facts - unfulfilled
    • Imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive in protasis and imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive in apodosis
    • Imperfect in both protasis and apodosis (Present Contrary to Fact) "si servi mei metuerunt, domm relinquendam putarem"
    • Pluperfect in both protasis and apodosis (Past Contrary to Fact) "si ibi te esse scissem, ad te ipse venissem"
    • Imperfect and Pluperfect mixed "nisi ante Roma profectus esses, nunc eam certe relinqueres"
  9. Cum Clauses
    • Are subordinate clauses.
    • Cum + indicative = "when" in time - no cause. Cum adve nit, laeti era mus. cum temporal and circumstantial clause: (When he arrived, we were happy.)
    • Cum + subjunctive = "since/when" = b/c. cum causal clause: Cum adveni ret, laeti era mus. (Because/Since he arrived, we were happy.)
    • Cum + subjunctive = "although" concessive main clause has "tomen". cum concessive clause: Cum adveni ret, laeti tamen era mus. (Even though/although he arrived, we were happy [anyway].)
    • Temporal cum clause introduced by cum or ubi
  10. Conditional Clauses Chart
    • Future More Vivid - future perfect indicative - future indicative
    • Future Less Vivid - Present subjunctive - future/present subjunctive
    • Present Simple - present indicative - present indicative
    • Present Contrary to Fact - imperfect subjunctive - imperfect subjunctive
    • Past Simple - past indicative - past indicative
    • Past Contrary to Fact - pluperfect subjunctive - pluperfect subjunctive
  11. Asyndeton
    • Where conjunctions are omitted from a series of related clauses.
    • veni, vidi, vici "I came, I saw, I conquered"
  12. Henidiadys
    • Two words linked by a conjugation to express a single complex idea.
    • Two for one and figure of twinnes
  13. Tricolon
    A sentence with three clearly defined parts - usually independent clauses and of increasing power.
  14. Active Indicative Verbs
    • Present - present stem(2pp) + o,s,t,mus,tis,nt
    • Imperfect - present stem(2pp) + bam,bas,bat,bamus,batis,bant
    • Future - (1&2) presnt stem + bo,bis,bit,bimus,bitis,bunt (3,4&3i) present stem(2pp) + am,es,et,emus,etis,ent
    • Perfect - 3pp + i,isti,it,imus,istis,erunt
    • Pluperfect - 3pp + eram,eras,erat,eramus,eratis,erant
    • Future Perfect - 3pp + ero,eris,erimus,eritis,erint
  15. Passive Indicative Verbs
    • Present - present stem(2pp) + or,ris,tur,mur,mini,ntur
    • Imperfect - present stem(2pp) + bar,baris,batur,bamur,batur,bantur
    • Future - presnt stem + bor,beris,bitur,bimur,bimini,buntur
    • Perfect - p + (s) tus,a,um (p)ti,ae,a + sum,es,est,sumus,estis,sunt
    • Pluperfect - p + (s) tus,a,um (p)ti,ae,a + eram,eras,erat,eramus,eratis,erant
    • Future Perfect - p + (s) tus,a,um (p)ti,ae,a + ero,eris,erimus,eritis,erunt
  16. Active Subjunctive Verbs
    • Present - present stem(2pp) + 1(e),2(ea),3(a),4/3i(ia) + m,s,t,mus,tis,nt [She Reads a Diary]
    • Imperfect - present active infinitive(2pp) + m,s,t,mus,tis,nt
    • Perfect - perfect active stem(3pp) + eri + m,s,t,mus,tis,nt
    • Pluperfect - perfect active infinitive(3pp) + m,s,t,mus,tis,nt [isse]
  17. Passive Subjunctive Verbs
    • Present - present stem(2pp) + 1(e),2(ea),3(a),4/3i(ia) + r,ris,tur,mur,mini,ntur [She Reads a Diary]
    • Imperfect - present active infinitive(2pp) + r,ris,tur,mur,mini,ntur
    • Perfect - perfect passive participle(4pp) + present active subjunctive of sum (sim,sis,sit,simus,sitis,sint)
    • Pluperfect - perfect passive participle(4pp) + imperfect active subjunctive of sum (essem,esses,esset,essemus,essetis,essent)
  18. Active Participles
    • Present - 4pp stem + ur + 2d noun endings (loving)
    • Future - 4pp stem + ur + 2d noun endings (being about to love)
  19. Passive Participles
    Perfect - 4pp stem + 1/2d noun endings (having been loved)
  20. First Declension Noun Endings
    • Feminine
    • Nominative - a/ae
    • Genitative - ae/arum
    • Dative - ae/is
    • Accusative - am/as
    • Ablative - a/is
  21. Second Declension Noun Endings
    • Masculine (Neuter)
    • Nominative - us(um)/i(a)
    • Genitative - i/orum
    • Dative - o/is
    • Accusative - um/os(a)
    • Ablative - o/is
  22. Third Declension Noun Endings
    • Masculine & Feminine (Neuter)
    • Nominative - "/es(a)
    • Genitative - is/um
    • Dative - i/ibus
    • Accusative - em(")/es(a)
    • Ablative - e/ibus
  23. Fourth Declension Noun Endings
    • Masculine (Neuter)
    • Nominative - us(u)/us(ua)
    • Genitative - us/uum
    • Dative - ui(u)/ibus
    • Accusative - um(u)/us(ua)
    • Ablative - u/ibus
  24. Fifth Declension Noun Endings
    • Feminine
    • Nominative - es/es
    • Genitative - ei/erum
    • Dative - ei/ebus
    • Accusative - em/es
    • Ablative - e/ebus

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