Latin Exam 2
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Latin Exam 2
Latin Exam 2
subordinate clauses that stand in some case relationship to the main verb
ex. serving as the direct object(accusative) or subject(nominative)
They act like a noun, an are similar to substantive adjectives
Introduced by ut, quin, quod, ne, ni, and ne non
Usually in the subjunctive
After verbs of ordering (imperio), urging (adhortor), seeking (tendo), permitting (concedere), hindering (officio), deciding (constituere), attempting (temptare), striving (laboro), wishing (opto), fearing (vereor), or happening (accido)
The action often seems in complete without the clause. ex. "I order them..." (to do what"
Sometimes accusative + infinitive
Follow rules for the sequence of tenses
Caesar imperavit eis ne hoc facerent. "Caesar ordered them not to do this."
Purpose and Result Substantive Clauses
Used as nouns.
Cupio ne venias. "I desire that you not come." "I don't want you to come."
Laborabat ut ex urbe discederet. "He was trying to depart from the city."
Quod Substanvive Clauses
Usually in the nominative case
Quod = because or which (relative)
Often comes at the beginnig of a sentence.
Quod homines colloquimur inter nos praestamus feris. "The fact that we humans speak to each other causes us to excel beasts"
Verb mainly in teh indicative
Indirect Speech - Substantive Clause
Subject accusative and infinitive
Composed of two parts
: protasis (the thing set up beforehand) and apodosis (the thing that comes from/the thing that results)
Protasis - if clause - subordinate to the apodosis - then clause
The protasis introduced by si, sin = si non, nisi, etiam, si, estsi, tametsi, tamenetsi, or any relative pronoun
Has 3 main types
The fulfillment of the condition is open - nothing is implied about its truthfulness or accuracy
indicative in protasis, indicative in apodosis
Future or Future Perfect tense
Almost always in the 2nd person
Si vales, bene est.
Si feceris id, magnum habebo gratiam
Shows a supposition which may not be fulfilled - likely but not certain
Present or Perfect Subjunctive in protasis, and usually also in apodosis
Si vir bonus habeat hanc vim, hac vi non utatur
Implies a situation which is contrary to known facts - unfulfilled
Imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive in protasis and imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive in apodosis
Imperfect in both protasis and apodosis (Present Contrary to Fact) "si servi mei metuerunt, domm relinquendam putarem"
Pluperfect in both protasis and apodosis (Past Contrary to Fact) "si ibi te esse scissem, ad te ipse venissem"
Imperfect and Pluperfect mixed "nisi ante Roma profectus esses, nunc eam certe relinqueres"
Are subordinate clauses.
Cum + indicative = "when" in time - no cause. Cum adve nit, laeti era mus. cum temporal and circumstantial clause
: (When he arrived, we were happy.)
Cum + subjunctive = "since/when" = b/c. cum causal clause
: Cum adveni ret, laeti era mus. (Because/Since he arrived, we were happy.)
Cum + subjunctive = "although" concessive main clause has "tomen". cum concessive clause
: Cum adveni ret, laeti tamen era mus. (Even though/although he arrived, we were happy [anyway].)
Temporal cum clause introduced by cum or ubi
Conditional Clauses Chart
Future More Vivid - future perfect indicative - future indicative
Future Less Vivid - Present subjunctive - future/present subjunctive
Present Simple - present indicative - present indicative
Present Contrary to Fact - imperfect subjunctive - imperfect subjunctive
Past Simple - past indicative - past indicative
Past Contrary to Fact - pluperfect subjunctive - pluperfect subjunctive
Where conjunctions are omitted from a series of related clauses.
veni, vidi, vici "I came, I saw, I conquered"
Two words linked by a conjugation to express a single complex idea.
Two for one and figure of twinnes
A sentence with three clearly defined parts - usually independent clauses and of increasing power.
Active Indicative Verbs
Present - present stem(2pp) + o,s,t,mus,tis,nt
Imperfect - present stem(2pp) + bam,bas,bat,bamus,batis,bant
Future - (1&2) presnt stem + bo,bis,bit,bimus,bitis,bunt (3,4&3i) present stem(2pp) + am,es,et,emus,etis,ent
Perfect - 3pp + i,isti,it,imus,istis,erunt
Pluperfect - 3pp + eram,eras,erat,eramus,eratis,erant
Future Perfect - 3pp + ero,eris,erimus,eritis,erint
Passive Indicative Verbs
Present - present stem(2pp) + or,ris,tur,mur,mini,ntur
Imperfect - present stem(2pp) + bar,baris,batur,bamur,batur,bantur
Future - presnt stem + bor,beris,bitur,bimur,bimini,buntur
Perfect - p + (s) tus,a,um (p)ti,ae,a + sum,es,est,sumus,estis,sunt
Pluperfect - p + (s) tus,a,um (p)ti,ae,a + eram,eras,erat,eramus,eratis,erant
Future Perfect - p + (s) tus,a,um (p)ti,ae,a + ero,eris,erimus,eritis,erunt
Active Subjunctive Verbs
Present - present stem(2pp) + 1(e),2(ea),3(a),4/3i(ia) + m,s,t,mus,tis,nt [She Reads a Diary]
Imperfect - present active infinitive(2pp) + m,s,t,mus,tis,nt
Perfect - perfect active stem(3pp) + eri + m,s,t,mus,tis,nt
Pluperfect - perfect active infinitive(3pp) + m,s,t,mus,tis,nt [isse]
Passive Subjunctive Verbs
Present - present stem(2pp) + 1(e),2(ea),3(a),4/3i(ia) + r,ris,tur,mur,mini,ntur [She Reads a Diary]
Imperfect - present active infinitive(2pp) + r,ris,tur,mur,mini,ntur
Perfect - perfect passive participle(4pp) + present active subjunctive of sum (sim,sis,sit,simus,sitis,sint)
Pluperfect - perfect passive participle(4pp) + imperfect active subjunctive of sum (essem,esses,esset,essemus,essetis,essent)
Present - 4pp stem + ur + 2d noun endings (loving)
Future - 4pp stem + ur + 2d noun endings (being about to love)
Perfect - 4pp stem + 1/2d noun endings (having been loved)
First Declension Noun Endings
Nominative - a/ae
Genitative - ae/arum
Dative - ae/is
Accusative - am/as
Ablative - a/is
Second Declension Noun Endings
Nominative - us(um)/i(a)
Genitative - i/orum
Dative - o/is
Accusative - um/os(a)
Ablative - o/is
Third Declension Noun Endings
Masculine & Feminine (Neuter)
Nominative - "/es(a)
Genitative - is/um
Dative - i/ibus
Accusative - em(")/es(a)
Ablative - e/ibus
Fourth Declension Noun Endings
Nominative - us(u)/us(ua)
Genitative - us/uum
Dative - ui(u)/ibus
Accusative - um(u)/us(ua)
Ablative - u/ibus
Fifth Declension Noun Endings
Nominative - es/es
Genitative - ei/erum
Dative - ei/ebus
Accusative - em/es
Ablative - e/ebus