Define and explain the significance of each term, and answer the short essay questions in a paragraph with specific examples!
The policy of maintaining a large standing army even in peacetime, and devoting lots of resources to the military.
Countries got into arms races to keep up with the other guy's army as a result.
A formal agreement between two or more countries to defend eachother if one is attacked.
Many countries pulled into WWI only because of alliances.
The takeover of other territories/countries for land and resources.
If you wanted land, you had to take it from another imperialist country, which led to conflict.
Extreme patriotism, characterised by the willingness to sacrifice and fight for your country or "people".
It united people against other countries, and strongly encouraged war.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Murdered by Gavrilo Princp, a member of the black hand, out of anger caused by the annexation of Bosnia in 1908.
A young member of the Black Hand tasked to kill Archduke Franz Ferdinand. He failed the first time, and coincidently saw ADFF outside the coffee shop he was brooding at. He killed him and his wife with 2 gun shots. Sentenced to 20 years hard labor after the murder, he died of tuberculosis in 2 years.
Allies (major countries)
Serbia, Russia, France, Britain (and their colonies, like Canada, India, and Australia), Japan, Italy, USA
Plan made by General Alfred von Schlieffen to avoid a two front war. Plan was to attack France through Belgium with 90% of Germany's troops. Hoping that they could beat france in 3-4 weeks. It failed because General von Moltke modified the plan to leave more men to defend the borders.
Where a line of trenches was dug in france to stop progression by french troops into germany.
Where a line of trenches was dug to stop Russians from advancing into Germany, and vice-versa.
The cutting off of all supplies to Germany by the british with their superior navy.
The fighting between two trenches. Most partaken ground combat method.
Battle of the Somme
Bloodiest battle of WWI, 750,000 killed within a few days.
Battle of Jutland
The naval battle between Germany and British. The British lost more ships, but the Germans retreated and left their ships at port the rest of the war. Submarine warfare was what they chose to turn to.
AKA, Baron Mandred Con Richtofen. Leading German Ace, with 80 confirmed kills. He was shot down in April of 1918 by Australian ground fire.
A blimp used for long range bombing and observation.
A British passenger ship containing 150 civilians heading to britain, INCLUDING 128 Americans sunk by a German U-boat.
The telegram between Mexico and Germany proposing an alliance in exchange for help in claiming America. Mexico refused, told the US, and was the last straw. The U.S. joined the war shortly thereafter.
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
The policy of sinking anything that heads to a place (in this case, Britain) without warning.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
The treaty that ended the war between Russia and Germany in exchange for Land from Russia to Germany.
Treaty of Versailles
The Treaty that ended that war, restricted Germany, and gave land to multiple countries.
Payment from Germany to some of the allies because of the war.
The President of the US during WWI
League of Nations
An idea from Wildrow Wilson to hopefully end all wars by making a peacekeeping army. Didn't end up being strong enough, and couldn't prevent any wars from happening.
Colonies supported by the Mother country that would be given independence. Used to trick Wildrow Wilson into voting for keeping colonies/giving away germanies colonies.
The Lost Generation
A Literary movement that emphasized the horrors of war
Live and Let Live System
An informal system of truces and cooperation that evolved between enemy soldiers who faced each other across no man's land.
A concentrated firing of cannons ona section of enemy trenches, usually before a raid.
A bombardment carefully aimed to slowly advance across no-mans land.
Boards lined the bottom of trenches to keep them dry.
A small bunker under the trenches
Soldiers stood on these to see and shoot over the parapet.
The most painful gas weapon of the war. Burns the eyes, skin and lung tissues like acid.
Over the Top
Going on a raid
Raised area in front of a trench.
An attack on enemy trenches.
Soldiers killed in trenches
Pieces of artillery shell of grenade.
When front line soldiers were on the firestep manning the forward trench.
The starting time for an attack or mission
Very large German Artillery
French term for anything German
German nickname for US Marines
A french soldier, Commonly an insult.
German soldiers, implies they are barbaric.
Large Artillery Shell
German Soldier, Commonly an insult.
Type of food ration.
What americans called Europe during the war.
Early form of PTSD. Soldiers would go crazy from constant explosions and stress of trench warfare.
A British Soldier
A small artillery shell intended to explode in the air above the trenches.
Name the four MAIN causes of WWI and explain how they led to the war.
Militarism: Made stresses between countries high
Alliances: Dragged otherwise peaceful countries into the war.
Imperialism: Bigger countries wanted smaller countries land. Often excuses made to achieve this goal.
Nationalism: No body disliked the war, Everyone supported it, and thus it got started.
Identify the major issues discussed at the Treaty of Versailles and explain what was deicided for each issue.
Reparations: Germany paid 33 Billion over many years.
German Military: Shrunk to 100,000 men, no tanks or submarines allowed.
German Colonies in Asia. 1/2 to Australia, 1/2 to Japan
German Colonies in Africa: 1/2 to France, 1/2 to British
Divison of Austrio-Hungary: 1% to italy, the rest was made independent.
The League of Nations: Formed, but was to weak to prevent wars (Members weren't required to contribute peacekeeping troops).
Why did the United States enter WWI? Explain 2 reasons.
The Unrestricted Submarine Warfare angered the US. We remained neutral until the Zimmerman Note was sent, then we became so angry that we attacked Germany, and joined the allies.
Identify three new weapons used in WWI and discuss their impact on the war. How were they used? Were they effective?
Poison Gas: Killed alot of people in the beginning by sending gas filled artillery shells to the enemy trench, but then it was easilly countered by Gas Masks. This made it ineffective.
Bombardments: Used artillery to weaken or destroy trenches before an attack. It killed the most out of any WWI weapon, but was ineffective. People would hide underground, then move up once the bombardment finished.
Flamethrowers: Scared people the first time it was used offensively, then it didn't work so well after that. After it was discovered to not work well on the offense, they used it in conjuncion with machine guns. They were effective in defense, but didn't work well in offense.
Why did the Treaty of Versailles and League of Nations fail to promote world peace? Discuss multiple reasons.
The reparations were VERY high, and made it difficult for Germany to pay off, even in a 30 year period.
Japan and Italy only got a fraction of the land they believed the deserved, and were very angry with the other allies.
The League of Nations wasn't Strong enough to stop wars.
This anger from Italy, Japan, and Germany led to the formation of the Axis. The leaders at the time being Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler. This led to WWII, which the LON couldn't stop because they weren't strong enough.