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where does the word "plankton" derived from?
the greek word meaning "wanderer"
what does plankton refer to?
marine organisms who are weak swimmers or don't swim at all.
which planktons come in smaller size? larger?
- tiny and microscopic: diatoms
- large: jellies
what are the two main types of planktons?
phytoplanktons and zooplanktons
what are phytoplanktons?
- a.k.a plant plankton.
they make their own food through photosynthesis.
(primarily single celled algae)
what are zooplanktons?
a.k.a animal planktons.
- they're heterorophs (depends on other organisms for their food)
- and must consume or eat to obtain energy
which type of plankton accounts for hald of the world's primary production?
which plankton created half the oxygen in out atmosphere through photosynthesis?
type of cellular structure of phytoplanktons?
what type of plankton is a diatom?
- they're phytoplanktons.
give 4 descriptions of diatoms.
- yellowing and brown in color.
- have either radial or bilateral symmetry.
- can exist as single cells or in chains.
- have glassy shells made of silica.
what are the glassy shells called?
how do diatoms get their color?
carotenoid pigments and cholorophyll.
how do diatoms reproduce?
when diatoms die, what happens?
glassy frustules settle in the ocean floor and create diatomaceous ooze.
what are diatomaceous earth used for?
filters, insulation and insecticide,
what type of plankton is a dinoflagellate?
give 4 descriptions of dinoflagellates
- can be red or green in color.
- are heterorophic and authotrophic (creates its own food through photosynthesis)
- can have plates of cellulose surrounding it
- usually has 2 flagella for mobility
how is the "red tide" created?
dinoflagellates reproducing so rapidly and it creates a "bloom"
which type of plankton has the ability to bioluminesce?
what type of plankton is a coccolithophore and give 2 descriptions
- usually round in shape, have calcareous plates and are called coccoliths.
- they can have 2 flagella for movement.
what's the primary role of diatoms, dinoflagellates and coccolithophores?
primary producers to help provide food for many marine organisms.
what do zooplanktons eat?
what can zooplanktons be considered as?
herbivores, carnivores or omnivores
what is a zooplankton mostly?
- larval forms of marine animals.
- they can be crustaceans, copepods and euphausiids (Krill)
what are "meroplanktons?
these grow up to be molluscs, sea stars, worms, crabs, barnacles
list 2 descriptions of copepods?
- small crustaceans.
- can be herbivores or carnivores.
what's the most abundant group of zooplankton?
what's another word for krill and what is it?
shrimp like crustaceans and can be carnivores or scavengers.
what is commonly found in cold nutrient rick antartic and artic waters?
how does a plankton stay afloat?
appendages (using legs and antennae) to swim.
undulation of the body: horizontally or vertically.
how does frictional drag help planktons?
since friction increases with surface area, friction can be increased by decreasing volume, flattening the body or increasing body lenght.
how do dinoflagellates and many crustaceans increase their durface area?
by acquiring spines and other appendages.
how is buoynacy increased?
storage of oils, increasing water content of the body and exchange of ions.
why are diatoms considered to be "unusual plants"?
they produce their own foods and are very oily.
name some organisms that feed of diatoms.
whales, sharks, sponges, clams and corals.
how do asterionellas keep themselves afloat?
clustering into star-shaped groups.