Unit 4 (2)

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Unit 4 (2)
2012-12-09 16:48:15

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  1. Platform (party)
    A document stating the aims and principles of a political party
  2. Caucus
    A closed meeting of party members within a legislative body to decide on questions of policy or leadership.
  3. Political Party
    An ongoing coalition of interest joined together to try to get their candidates for public office elected under a common label.
  4. Party Base
     A group of voters who almost always support a single party's candidates for elected office
  5. Party Realignment
    An election/set of elections which the electorate responds strongly to an extraordinary issue that has disrupted the established political order.
  6. Grassroots Party
    A political party organized at the level of the voters and dependent on their support for its strength.
  7. Party Coalition
    The groups/interests that support a political party
  8. Hard Money
    Campaign funds given disrectly to candidates to spend as they choose.
  9. Soft Money
    Campaign contibutions that are not subject to legal limits and are given to parties rather than directly to candidates.
  10. McCain-Feingold Act
    changed the way that campaigns for federal political offices are financed. It banned soft money contributions.
  11. Iron Triangle
    A small and informal but relatively stable group of well-positioned legislators, executives, and lobbyists who seek to promote policies beneficial to a particular interest.
  12. Fairness Doctrine
    a tenet of licensed broadcasting that ensures a reasonable opportunity for the airing of conflicting viewpoints on controversial issues
  13. Media Bias
    the tendency of some media to display a slant towards the left or the right instead of demonstrating objectivity.
  14. 527 Committees
    a tax-exempt organization created for thepurpose of influencing the election orappointment of public officials
  15. Framing
    The process of selecting certain aspects of reality and making them the most salient part of the communication, thereby conveying a particular interpretation of a situation.
  16. Slander
    Spoken words that falsely damage a person's reputation.
  17. Issue Networks
    An informal and relatively open network of public officals and lobbyists who come together in response to a proposed policy in an area of interest to each of them and disbands after the issue is solved.
  18. Indirect Lobbying
    • -Grassoots lobbying
    • -Lobbying amied at the public
    • -Public response can influence policy
  19. Direct Lobbying
    • Lobbying aimed at public officals
    • -Inisde lobbying:direct comm. and personal interaction b/t lobbyists and politicians
    • --Wine and dine and breif trips b/c giving money is bribery
    • -Outside lobbying: using public pressure to influence politicians
    • --Encouraging letter writing, calls, visits, etc
  20. Lobbying
    • The process where interest groups seek to influence public policy through direct and indirect contact w/ public officals,
    • Target:
    • -members of house and senate
    • -exec. agencies
    • --enviormental protection agencies
    • --FDA
    • --Federal Trade Comission
  21. Negative Campaigning (Mudslinging)
    • The use of attack ads on an opponent.
    • -Only kind of ad allowed for soft money groups under law.
  22. Spin
    The art of taking people abd events and recasting them into something favorable
  23. Packaging
    Recasting a candidates record into something appealing
  24. Genreal Election Season
    From the end of primary season (Aug) to election day (1st Tue in Nov) Goal is to win the presidental election.
  25. Front-Loading
    Trying to be the earliest states in primaries
  26. Superdelegates
    Party leaders who are unelected delegates
  27. Closed Primary
    A type of primary election where a person must be registered the party b/f the election
  28. Open Primary
    A primary election where a person can vote for whatever party they want at the election
  29. Primary Election
    A form of election in which voters choose a party's nominies for public office. To vote is limited to registered party members.
  30. Primary Season
    Feb-Aug of election year campanging is the goal to in the party's nomination.
  31. Democratice Party
    • -1828 1st elected prez. Andrew Jackson
    • -Base: Afr Am, Labor Unions, Hispanics
    • -Genreally liberal (fiscal and social)
    • -Blue Dog Democrats: in South moderate Democrats (socially conservative and economically liberal)
    • -North East Coast (West and East)
    • Pro-Choice, ok w/ Debt, for taxtes on the rich, Big gov't
  32. Republican Party (GOP)
    • -1854, 1ST prez. Abe Lincoln; founded as anti-slavery
    • -Mostly conservative (fiscal and social)
    • -RINO's (Republican in Name Only)-found in NE, moderate repubs(soically liberal, economic conservatives)
    • -Sotherns, Miltary vets, Gunowners, White (Christians)
    • -Pro-life, against raised busniess taxes, Small gov't
  33. Party Affilation
    • -Region:Newcomers generally less conservative than natives in that region. Differences include social welfare and civil rights. Red(South)/Blue(NE, NMW, WC) staes refer to regions.
    • -Gender: Women have more liberal opinions. Man and women differ on increased spending in education,national security, military force, and affirmative action.
    • -Race: Affects opinions on civil rights and liberties issues. Balcks/hispanics are more supportive of affirmative action and less trusting of police and judicial and tend to differ from non-hispanics whites on economic assistance programs but mostly relects difference in their own income/educ. level.
    • Age: Those who came from WW2 have a sense of civic duty but those who come from Vietnam War era are mistrustful of gov't. Age groups.generations differ in age related policies.
    • -Income: Welfare has more support from low-incomers while higher-incomers support tax cuts. Collective bargaining is higher amaong "white collar workers".
    • -Religion: Poverty programs have higher support grom Catholics and Jews than Protestans. Christians and born again Christians are more socially conservative and believe in prayers in school.
  34. Nomination
    The designation of a particular indiviual to run as a poltical party's candidate in a general election.
  35. News
    The news media's version of reality, usually with an emphasis on timely, dramatic, and compelling events/developements
  36. News Media (Press)
    Those print and broadcast organzations that are in the news-reporting business.
  37. Partisan Press
    Newspaper and other comm. media that openly supports a political party and whose news in significant part follows the party line
  38. Objective Journalism
    A model of news reporting that is based on the comm. of facts rather than opinions and that is fair in that it presents all sides of partisan debates.
  39. Signaling Function
    The accepted responsiblity of the media to alret the public important developments ASAP
  40. Watchdog Function
    To protect the oublic from decitful, careless, incompetent and corrupt officals by standing ready to expose any officals who violates accepted legal, ethical or performance standards.
  41. Parisan Function
    Efforts by media actors to influence public response to a particaular party, leader, issue or viewpoint.
  42. Common Carrier Function
    The media's function as an open channel through which poltical leaders can communcate with the public.
  43. Cable Media
    TV Broadcating, news, talkshows, etc.
  44. Tradtional Media
    Newspapers, radios, etc.
  45. Radio Talk
    Talkshows through radio, where people on the radio share news, etc.
  46. Internet Media (New Media)
    Getting news from the web.
  47. Citizen Media
    Where ordinary people can post news/issues on the web, via blogs or their own webpage.
  48. Public Opinion/Policy
    • -Opinion: The politcally relevant opinions held by ordinary citizens that they express openly
    • -Policy: A decision of gov't to pursue a course of action designed to produce an intended outcome.
  49. PAC
    The organzation through which an interest group raises and distributes funds for election purpose. Funds must be raised through voluntary contributions.
  50. Straight Ticket
    a ballot cast by a voter who votes for all the candidates of one party
  51. Absentee Ballots
    A ballot completed and mailed before an election by a voter unable to be present at the polls.
  52. Presidential Election
    A presidential election is the election of any head of state whose official title is president.
  53. Midterm Election
    An election held every two years to elect members of the House of Representatives and a third of members of the Senate
  54. Off-year Election
    an election held in a year when a presidential election does not take place
  55. Fundraising and Spending
    • -One, such as a person or an organization, that raises funds
    • -Pay out (money) in buying or hiring goods or services
  56. Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission
    a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court held that the First Amendment prohibited the government from restricting independent political expenditures by corporations and unions.
  57. Business Groups
    a collection of parent and subsidiary corporations that function as a single economic entity through a common source of control.
  58. Labor Groups
    an organization of workers formed for the purpose of advancing its members' interests in respect to wages, benefits, and working conditions
  59. Agircultural Groups
    Organizations that put their efforts in the interest of nature, land, and resources
  60. Professional Groups
    usually a nonprofit organization seeking to further a particular profession, the interests of individuals engaged in that profession, and the public interest
  61. Public Interest Groups
    • -"common well-being" or "general welfare"
    • - appeal or relevance to the general populace: a news story of public interest
  62. Single Issue Groups
    • -involved in activities that center around a narrowly defined subject.
    • -may or may not be interested in economically benefiting its members, or the public -- that depends on what the group's single issue is.
  63. Ideological Groups
    Political groups that view all other issues in their own way based on the thing(s) they support as that group; federal spending, taxes, foreign affairs, court appointments, typically liberal or conservativ
  64. Gov't Groups
    A group of persons working on behalf of or strongly supporting a particular cause, such as an item of legislation, an industry, or a special segment of society.
  65. Grassroot Lobbying (Indirect Lobbying)
    A form of lobbying that focuses on raising awareness of a particular cause at the local level, with the intention of reaching the legislature and making a difference in the decision-making process.
  66. Super PAC's
    independent political committees that support a candidate with unlimited, often anonymous, donations from companies, unions, or individuals.
  67. Consultants
    refers to a specific management consulting industry which has grown up around advising and assisting political campaigns
  68. Focus Groups
    Research in which a group of people are asked about their perceptions, opinions, beliefs, and attitudes towards a product, service, concept, advertisement, idea, or packaging.
  69. Photo Ops
    an opportunity to take a memorable and effective photograph of a politician, a celebrity, or a notable event.
  70. Mass Media
    means of communication that reach large numbers of people in a short time, such as television, newspapers, magazines, and radio
  71. Yellow Journalism
    a type of journalism that presents little or no legitimate well-researched news and instead uses eye-catching headlines to sell more newspapers.
  72. Muckraking
    To search for and expose misconduct in public life.
  73. Watergate Scandal
    a political scandal that occurred in the United States in the 1970s as a result of the June 1972 break-in at theDemocratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C., and the Nixon administration's attempted cover-up of its involvement.
  74. WikiLeaks
    an international, online, not-for-profit organisation which publishes secret information, news leaks,and classified media from anonymous sources