CMP Glossary

Card Set Information

Author:
dshkap
ID:
182183
Filename:
CMP Glossary
Updated:
2013-03-20 23:34:37
Tags:
Definitions
Folders:

Description:
Definitions
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user dshkap on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. 1/50
    One per fifty.  FFacility complimentary room policy: one complimentary room night for every fifty room nights picked up and paid for.  While 1/50 was once the standard, the complimentary policies vary per hotel and/or event.
  2. 6-by-6 Rule
    Audiovisual guidelines by which presentations slide should contain more than six words per line of text and no more than six lines of text.
  3. ACCED-I
    Association of Collegiate Conference & Events Directors-International
  4. Acceleration Clause
    A provision sometimes used in contracts to accelerate deposit payment schedule or to demand full prepayment of master account in the event of a default or lack of credit by the organization.  May also apply in other situations, such as assignments.
  5. Accepted Practice Exchange
    APEX.  An initiative of the meetings, convetions & exhibitions industry managed by the CIC.  APEX develops and manages the implementation of accepted practices (voluntary standards) for the industry.
  6. Accrual Accounting
    • 1.  An accounting method that enters income and expenses into the books at the time of contract versus when payment is received or expenses incurred (cash accounting).
    • 2.  A system in which revenue and expenses are accounted for as soon as they are committed.
  7. ACOM
    Association for Convention Operation Management
  8. Action Station
    Chefs prepare foods to order and serve them fresh to guests.  Also called Performance Stations, Carving Stations, or Exhibition Cooking.
  9. Actual Weight/Gross Weight/Tare Weight
    Aka gross shipping weight.  Determined by (1) weighing a vehicle empty, (2) loading a shipment and returning the vehicle to the scale to obtain the weight, and (3) subtracting the two weights.  Can also be obtained by individually weighing each piece of freight.
  10. Ad Valorem Tax
    Aka, duty.  Tax applied to an item according to the value of an item.
  11. ADME
    Association of Destination Management Executives.
  12. Advance Order
    An order for goods and/or services ordered before the move-in date for an exhibition.  Usually less expensive than a floor order.
  13. Advance Rate
    Fees associated with advance orders, which typically include discounts when paid in advance.
  14. AED
    Automated External Defibrillator.  Device installed in many large public areas.  Can be used by an individual to administer life-saving care to person experiencing a heart attack.
  15. Affinity Group
    Group sharing common interest, usually people who are members of an organization.
  16. AH&LA
    AMerican Hotel and Lodging Association.
  17. Air Consignment Note
    A bill of lading that covers domestic and international flights transporting goods to a specified destination.  Aka, Waybill, Bill of Lading, Inland Bill of Lading, Through Bill of Lading.
  18. Airfreight Forwarder
    An airfreight company that transports freight via scheduled airlines.  Forwarders do not operate their own planes.
  19. All-risk Insurance
    Insurance against loss of or damage to property arising from any fortuitous case except those that are specifically excluded.  An insurance contract which provides All-Risks Insurance is an All-Risks policy.
  20. Alternate Media
    Alternatives to print materials (e.g. Braille, large print, etc.), telecommunications, computers, and other electronic media provided to assist people with disabilities in achieving full participation.
  21. Alternate Dispute Resolution
    Methods for resolving disputes without going to court.
  22. AMCI
    AMC (Association Managment Company) Institute
  23. American Breakfast
    A meal of fruits and/or juices, cereal, eggs, meat, bakery goods and hot or cold beverages.
  24. American Plan
    A type of hotel rate that includes the price of the room and all meals.   Also called Full American Plan (FAP).  See Inclusive Rate.
  25. American Service
    Food is plated in the kitchen and placed before the guest.  Side dishes are used for bread and butter and salad.  Food is served from the left, beverages from the right, and all items are removed from the right.  This is generally the service used for banquets.  Aka, plated service.
  26. AMMC
    Alliance of Meeting Management Consultants
  27. Analog
    A method of conveying audio or video data electronically in by varying its signal frequency or amplitude.
  28. Andragogy
    The art and science of helping adults learn as opposed to pedagogy, which is the science of helping children learn.
  29. Antitrust Laws
    Laws designed to promote competition and prevent unfair practices that may lead to monopolies or suppression of competition.
  30. Application Service Provider
    ASP.  A company that provides software to customers through the Internet using centralized servers owned and managed by the provider.
  31. Apron
    Part of a stage in front of the main curtain.
  32. Arbitration
    Private dispute resolution process, often referred to as alternate dispute resolution, in which the parties agree to submit their dispute to an impartial third party for a decision.  Depending on the type of arbitration, the arbitrator's decision may or may not be binding.  Several organizations, including the American Arbitration Association and JAMS-Endispute, handle arbitration claims.  Courts may require some disputes be submitted to arbitration instead of or prior to the formal trial process.
  33. Arc Light
    A light source providing high-intensity light utilizing a positive and negative metal rod (instead of a light bulb) for alrge screens or long projection distances; also used in follow spotlights; replaced by xenon lamps in the 1980's.
  34. Arena
    Facilty type featuring large flat main floor surrounded by fixed seats in sloping oval, steaper than typical theater.  Designed for events the size of a hockey floor, circus, ice show, or basketball court.
  35. ASCAP
    American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers.  hold copyrights to music written in the US and grants licensing agreements for the performance of that music.
  36. Aspect Ratio
    The ratio of image width to height; pertaining to audiovisual, video and slides.
  37. Asynchronous Learning
    student-centered teaching method that uses online learning resources to facilitate information sharing outside the constraints of time and place among a network of people.  Typically this is on-demand and can be video-on-demand, audio-on-demand, correspondence courses, email messages, bulletin boards, etc.
  38. ATA Carnet
    An international customs document that permits duty-free and tax-free temporary import of goods for up to one year.  It eliminates or reduces VAT charges, customs fees, and bond fees.  The initials ATA are an acronym of the French and English words "Admission Temporaire/Temporary Admission".  ATA Carnets cover commercial samples; professional equipment; and goods for presentation or use at trade fairs, shows, exhibitions, etc.  Items not covered are consumable or disposable goods, which will not be returned home.
  39. Attrition
    The difference between the actual number of sleeping rooms picked-up (or F&B covers or revenue projections) and the number or formulas agreed to in the terms of the facility's contract.  Usually there is an allowable shortfall before damages are assessed.
  40. Back Drape
    A drape, curtain or fabric panel that provides a soft, colorful background for a speaker or stage presentation.
  41. Back Light
    • A light source that illuminates any transparent or translucent material from behind.
    • A lighting instrument used behind and above a presenter to give more depth and better image to video projection or recording.
  42. Backbone
    A permanently installed series of copper wire or fiber optic cabling that provides the main infrastructure for transmitting voice, data, and video signals within a facility.
  43. Backline Equipment
    Equipment such as amplifiers and sound equipment required by musicians in order to perform at an engagement often rented by the event organizer.
  44. Balance Sheet
    A financial status at a given time (liabilities, assets, etc)
  45. Bank Guarantee Cash Deposit
    Payable by the exhibitor to the forwarder, Customs agent, or official authorities in place of a temporary import bond to ensure the amount requested is the minimum amount of import duties and taxes that would be paid in case of final import.
  46. Banquet Round
    Round table up to 12 ppl.  8 ppl is 60 inches; 10 ppl is 72 inches.
  47. Bare Booth/Stand
    Booth/stand with no services or facilities, meaning that these all have to be hired at an additional cost.
  48. Batten
    BATS.  Lengths of pipe from which scenery, curtains, and lights can be hung.
  49. Bermuda Plan
    Hotel accomodations with full American-style breakfast included in the rate.  Aka, American Plan, Continental Plan, Demi-Pension, European Plan, Modified American Plan.
  50. Bill of Lading
    A document that establishes the terms of a contract between a shipper and transportation company under which freight is to be moved between specified points for a specified charge.  It serves as a document of title, a contract of carriage, and receipt of goods.
  51. Billing Weight
    Generally refers to airfreight and van line shipments.  The billing weight is the number upon which freight charges are based.  The billing weight will be the actual weight or the dimensional weight, whichever is greater.
  52. Blind Commission
    A commission that is paid by a hotel to a third party that reimburses for services and comes out of the hotel sleeping room rate, but is not disclosed to the guests or the event organizer.
  53. Blue Laws
    In the US, state or local laws that regulate the types of businesses that must be closed, or the types of products that may not be sold on Sundays.
  54. Blueline
    Final proof copy for clients approval before printing.  AKA proof.
  55. BMI
    Broadcast Music Incorporated.  A music licensing organization that represents indivduals who hold copyrights to music written in the US.
  56. Bonded Warehouse
    A warehouse authorized by customs authorities for storage of goods on which payment of duties is deferred until the goods are removed.
  57. Bonding
    The purchase for a premium, of a guarantee of protection for a supplier or a customer.  In the hospitality industry, certain bonding programs are mandatory.
  58. Buzz Session
    Method to increase audience participation by dividing all participants in discussion groups each of which reports the group's findings and opinions during a following plenary session.
  59. SMART
    First 5 principles of writing outcomes: Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, Time-based
  60. Levels of measurement for meeting objectives
    • Level 0: Statistics, Scope and Volume
    • Level 1: Reaction, Satisfaction and Planned Action
    • Level 2: Learning
    • Level 3: Application
    • Level 4: Business Impacts
    • Level 5:ROI
  61. Benefit/Cost Ratio (BCR) & ROI (%)


  62. Cognitive Domain of Learning Outcomes
    • Refers to what the learner knows or understands encompassing recall or recognition of information and the development of intellectual skills that provide the learner with the ability to conduct rational tasks.
    • Knowledge - recall/recongnize content in the way it was presented.
    • Comprehension - ability to manipulate knowledge elements meaningfully
    • Application - use material in new and concrete situations to solve problems or facilitate learning new situation.
    • Analysis - identify relevant knowledge components and making the connection between two parts.
    • Synthesis - take parts of previously aquired knowledge, arrange and combine content and produce a unique or new response, structure, pattern, idea.
    • Evaluation - making judgment about the value or worth of something in relation to some purpose.
  63. Affective Domain of Learning Outcomes
    • Refers to how the learner feels - their interests, attitudes, feelings and values as well as how they internalize values and beliefs.
    • Receptivity - willingness to pay attention to a particular stimulus or educational activity.
    • Response - involves active participation, responding to stimulus (advertisement for activity).  Reaction to stimulus.
    • Valuation - value or worth learner places on particular object, phenomenon, or behavior.  A voluntary display of attitude or an interest.
    • Organization - bringing together different values, resolving conflicts among them and beginning the development of an internally consistent system.
    • Character - when a value system has controlled an individual's behavior so learner has adopted a characteristic lifestyle.
  64. Psychomotor Domain of Learning Outcomes
    • Refers to how a learner uses manual skills with an emphasis on the performance of motor skills.
    • Perception - use of the senses to obtain cues that guide a motor activity.
    • Set - readiness to take a particular type of action
    • Guided Response - occurs during early states of learning.   Imitation, repetition that has been already demonstrated.
    • Mechanical - when learned responses have become habitual and can be performed with confidence and proficiency.
    • Proficiency - skillful performance of motor acts that involve intricate movement patterns - performed automatically, without hesitation.
    • Adaptation - skills are so developed that individual can modify movement patterns to fit special requirements or deal with problem situation.
    • Originality - creation of new movement or patterns to fit particular situation or problem.
  65. 10 Principles of Writing Outcomes
    • 1. Statement must be specific
    • 2. Statement must be measurable
    • 3. Statement must be attainable
    • 4. Statement must be relevant
    • 5. Statement must be timely
    • 6. Statement describes the end (product) not the means (process)
    • 7. Write a separate statement for each outcome
    • 8. Write a statement that reflects different levels of skill attainment
    • 9. Start each statement with a concrete action verb
    • 10. Attitudes themselves cannot be measured; they can only be inferred from behavior
  66. Learning Contract
    A document that states a learners expectations regarding the learning objectives, resources, strategies, proof of accomplishment, criteria, and ways of validating achievement.
  67. Green Event
    Incorporates envoronmental c onsiderations throughout all stages of the plannin process in order to minimize the negative impact on the environment.
  68. Strategic Plan
    Long-range plan of action for a company or organization
  69. Booking Policy
    Guidelines by which a convention center (or other venue) prioritizes reservations; may correspond to hotel rooms the event will use in the area.
  70. Booth
    Specific exhibit display area assigned by show management to an exhibitor under contractual agreement.  Internationally, STAND.
  71. Brainstorming
    Group sessions in which all participants contribute creative ideas which are not initially judged for merit.
  72. Break-even Point
    The point at which revenues are equal to expenses.
  73. Breat-out Rooms
    Small function rooms set up for a group within an event as opposed to a plenary or general session.
  74. Breat-out Sessions
    Small group sessions, panels, workshops or presentations, offered concurently within an event.  Break-out sessions occur apart from the general session.
  75. Broker
    A non-asset based transportation provider that sells transportation services for commercial shippers.  Brokers commonly use freight forwarders.
  76. Budget
    A statement of estimated revenues and expenditures for a specified period of time; divided into subject categories and arranged by principal areas of revenue and expenses.
  77. Budget Philosophy
    Financial goal of the event (break even, profit or lose money).
  78. Buffet
    Assortment of foods, offered on a table, self-served.
  79. Butler Service
    1) Servers offer a variety of both hot and cold hors d'oeuvres on platters to guests at receptions. 2) A style of table service where guests serve themselves from platters presented by the server. 3) Specialized in-room service offered by a hotel.
  80. Buying Agent
    An agent who purchases goods on behalf of a company or agency.
  81. By the Person
    A fixed price per attendee; covers all consumption of food and beverage at a function, within a given time frame; usually includes beverages, snacks or hors d'oeuvres.  In some cases, beverages are purchased by the person, while food is ordered by the piece.
  82. C&F
    Cost and Freight.  A pricing term indicating that these costs are included in the quotated price.
  83. C&I
    Cost and Insurance.  A pricing term indicating that these costs are included in the quoted price.
  84. Cabaret Set-up
    Room arrangement with cocktail tables with chairs and a stage.
  85. Cabaret Table
    Small round table; 15-30 inches in diameter used for cocktail type parties.  AKA Cocktail Table.
  86. CAD/CAM
    Computer Assisted Drawing/Manufacturing
  87. CADD
    Computer Aided Design and Drafting
  88. Cafeteria Service
    A food service operation in which customers carry their own trays and select food from a display counter or counters.  It is similar to a buffet, but food is served by attendants.
  89. Canandian Customs Invoice
    Document required by Canadian Customs identifying shipper, seller, consignee, terms, date of shipment, material being sold/shipped, classification code, quantity, unit and total prices.  Additional information required on the invoice depends on shipper and consignee arrangements.
  90. Cancellation Clause
    Provision in a contract which outlines damages to be paid to the non-canceling party if cancellation occurs, due the canceling party's breach of the contract.
  91. Cancellation or Interruption Insurance
    Insurance that protects an event organizer against financial loss or expenses incurred when contractually specified perils necessitate canceling or relocating an event, or cause a reduction in attendance.
  92. Cancellation/No Show Percentage
    A factor included in WASH.  The number or percentage of reserved rooms that do not actualize into occupied rooms due to guest cancelations or no-shows.  AKA WASH.
  93. Carbon Neutral
    Carbon neutral is the point at which enough carbon is offset or sequestered to covered a specific amount of carbon generated by a manufacturing process, transportation method, product usage, building or individual.
  94. Cargo Insurance
    Additional coverage protecting the owner of goods for loss or damage while goods are in a carrier's possession.  Recommended for all international shipments.
  95. Carnet
    A customs document permiting the holder to carry or send merchandise temporarily into certain foreign countries (for display, demonstration or similar purposes) without paying duties or posting bonds.
  96. Cartage
    1) Fee charged for transporting freight between destinations. 2) Short distance hauling of exhibit properties.
  97. Cash Accounting
    A system in which revenue and expenses are counted as they are actually received.
  98. Cash Based Accounting
    An accounting method that enters income and expenses into the books at the time when payment is received or expenses incurred.
  99. Casualty Insurance
    A type of insurance that is primarily concerned with the legal liability for losses caused by injury to persons or damage to the property of others.
  100. Category Cable
    (Unshielded Twisted Pair Cable or UTP) Usually referred to as Cat followed by a numeral between and 1 and 7.  Cat 5 or Cat 5e cabling, required for Fast Ethernet, is the most commonly available.  See BACKBONE.
  101. Catering Sales Manager
    Staff person responsible for selling and servicing group and local food and beverage functions.
  102. CDME
    Certified Destination Marketing Executive
  103. CEC
    Continuing Education Credit
  104. Ceiling Height
    Maximum height of ceiling of an exhibition hall or event room.
  105. CEIR
    Center for Exhibition Industry Research.
  106. Century Weight
    CWT.  A measurement for exhibit freight equal to 100 lbs.  AKA HUNDRED WEIGHT.
  107. Certificate of Insurance
    A document provided by an insurance company as proof that a policy has been issued and coverage is in effect.
  108. Certificate or Origin
    A document, required by certain countries for tariff purposes, certifying as to the country of origin of specified goods.
  109. Certified Weight
    An official weight issued from a Certified Weight Master.  This individual certifies a shipment's weight as the only acceptable weight for transportation and drayage at a tradeshow.
  110. Change Order
    Facility form to advise departments of changes in reservations or functions.
  111. Chart of Accounts
    A detailed list of the individual line items that make up the revenue and expense categories in a budget.  A numbering system used to identify every line item in a budget, so income and expenses are posted to the correct accounts.
  112. Charter
    1) Exclusive use of all or some space on an airplane, bus, ship or other vehicle for a special period of time and for a specific itinerary. 2) To create a new association, organization or chapter of an association or organization.
  113. Cherry Picker
    Equipment capable of lifting a person or persons to a given height.
  114. Chevron Set-Up
    Seating arrangement in which chairs / or chairs or tables are arranged in rows slanted in a V shape and separated by a center aisle.  They face the head table or speaker.  AKA HERRINGBONE & V-SHAPE.
  115. CIF
    Cost, Insurance, Freight.  A pricing term indicating that these costs are included in the quoted price.
  116. CIF&C
    Cost, Insurance, Freight and Commission.  A pricing term indicating that these costs are included in the quoted price.
  117. CIF&E
    Cost, Insurance, Freight, and Exchange.  A pricing term indicating that these costs are included in the quoted price.
  118. Citywide Event
    An event that requires the use of a convention center or event complex, as well as multiple hotels in the host city.
  119. Classification
    Commodity tariff used to classify shipments.  Shipments are evaluated by their density, sensitivity, packaging and other criteria.  Rates are assessed on a shipment after a commodity classification is established.
  120. Clean Bill of Lading
    A receipt for goods issued by a carrier with an indication that the goods were received in apparent good order and condition, without damages or other irregularities.
  121. Clean Draft
    A draft to which no documents have been attached.
  122. Clear Date/Time
    Generally the last point in time at which an exhibitor-appointed carrier must be in line or at the dock in order to be loaded after the close of the show.
  123. Climate Neutral
    Climate Neutral products or services reduce and offset the greenhouse gases generated at each stage of their life-cycle on a cradle-to-cradle basis: the sourcing of their materials, their manufacturing or production, their distribution, use and ultimate end-of-life disposition.
  124. Clinic
    Workshop-type educational experience where participants learn by doing.
  125. Closed-Ended Incentive Programs
    The number of winners are limited by a predetermined amount to be spent on the incentive program.  AKA OPEN ENDED INCENTIVE PROGRAMS.
  126. CODEC
    Compression/Decompression or Coder/Decoder.  Videoconferencing standard, included in hardware and/or software, used to compress or code video, audio and data signals for transmission and decompress or decode the signal at the other end of the transmission.
  127. Collateral
    1) Assets that can be pledged to guarantee a loan. 2) The promotional material used by the salespeople to support or corroborate the features and benefits of the item being sold. 3) Collective term for material distributed to attendees at registration, including badges, lanyards, tote bags, agenda and other materials.
  128. Collection and Consolidation Service
    Service performed for a shipper in which a number of smaller shipments are picked up or received and forwarded as one truckload shipment.
  129. Colloquium
    An informal meeting for the purpose of discussion; usually of an academic or research nature and in order to ascertain areas of mutual interest through exchange of ideas.  Conducted as and when convenient, but with little regularity.
  130. Co-Location
    To hold two related events at the same time and in the same place.
  131. Commission
    A payment made to an individual or organization for bringing business to another individual or organization.
  132. Commissionable Rate Commitment
    A contract in which the room rate to be charged to attendees includes a commission to be paid to either the sponsoring group or a third party such as a travel agent or independent event planning or site selection organization.
  133. Common Carrier
    Transportation company which handles crated materials; an agency or business that is available to the public for transportation of persons, goods, or messages; usually referring to freight transportation on regularly scheduled trucks or airplanes.
  134. Complete Meeting Package
    CMP.  An all-inclusive plan offered by conference centers; includes lodging, all meals and support services.
  135. Complimentary Ratio
    The number of rooms provided at no cost based on the number of occupied rooms.
  136. Concessions
    1) Merchandise or refreshments sold on site, to individuals, in conjunction with an event. 2) Contractual agreement where one party provides something of value to the other party in exchange for something else, pending certain conditions.
  137. Conclave
    Gathering of a group with shared or special interests.  Traditionally refers to meetings of a confidential or secret nature with restricted or limited participation.  From the Latin for "with key", referring to a historical practice of sequestering participants.
  138. Concurrent Sessions
    Multiple sessions scheduled at the same time.  Programs on different themes or subjects offered simultaneously.
  139. Conference Officer/Organizer
    Title generally conferred upon the cheif administrator of the entire event.  AKA Professional Congress Organizer.
  140. Confirmed Letter of Credit
    A letter of credit, issued by a foreign bank, whose validity has been confirmed by an American bank.  An exporter whose payment terms are a confirmed letter of credit is assured of payment even if the foreign buyer or the foreign bank defaults.
  141. Congress
    1) The regular coming together of large groups of individuals, generally to discuss a particular subject.  A congress will often last several days and have several simultaneous sessions.  The length of time between congresses is usually annual, although some are on a less frequent basis.  Most international or world congresses are latter type; national congresses are more frequently held annually.  2) European term for convention.
  142. Connecting Rooms
    In a hotel, a configuration of two or more guests rooms with private connecting doors permitting access between rooms without exiting into a public corridor.
  143. Consecutive Interpretation
    Oral translation of several phrases or entire speeches from one language to another.  Speaker pauses between phrases to allow for interpretation.
  144. Consideration
    The inducement to a contract.  The cause, motive, price, or impelling influence which induces a contracting party to enter a contract.
  145. Consignee
    Recipient.  The person, people, or organization to whom something is delivered or addressed.  AKA Consignor.
  146. Consular Declaration
    A formal statement, made to the consul of a country, describing goods to be shipped.
  147. Consular Invoice
    A document, required by some countries, describing a shipment of goods and showing information such as the consignor, consignee, and value of the shipment.  Certified by a consular official of the foreign country, it is used by that country's customs officials to verify the value, quantity, and nature of the shipment.
  148. Consumer Show
    Exhibition that is open to the public, usually requiring an entrance fee.  AKA Exhibition.
  149. Container Detention
    A charge that is assessed when the container is removed from the carrier's control but is not returned within the allowable free time.
  150. Continental Breakfast
    Light morning meal consisting of pastries, juices, and hot beverages.  Usually buffet style.
  151. Continental Plan
    A room rate that includes a continental breakfast. 
  152. Contracting Carrier
    Trucking  company that enters into a specific contract with a shipper to transport goods for an agreed-upon price.  Contained within the contract are all the terms and conditions, liability, transit times, etc.
  153. Contractor
    An individual or organization providing services to a meeting or trade show and/or its exhibitors.  May be Official (appointed by show management) or Independent (appointed by exhibitor).  Typically refers to either a general service contractor or specialty contractor.
  154. Controversy Panel
    To stimulate interest and debate, arrange for two or three views of a controversial issue to be presented.
  155. Convener
    Member of committee in charge of convening participants.
  156. Convention
    Gathering of delegates, representatives, and members of a membership or industry organization convened for a common purpose.  Common features include educational sessions, committee meetings, social functions, and meetings to conduct the governance business of the organization.  Conventions are typically recurring events with specific, established timing.
  157. Convention and Visitors Bureau
    CVB.  A non profit organization, defined and recognized by it's incorporated local government entity as the representative organization responsible for promoting the economic development of their community through travel and tourism.  CBs assist planners by providing information on local resources and services, including site selection, pre-conference and post-convention services.
  158. Convention Services Manager
    CSM.  Professional at a hotel, convention center or convention bureau who is responsible for event operations management on all levels.
  159. Copyright
    Laws that allow for the ownership of intellectual property (such as writings, art, music).  Copy-written material cannot be used without the owner's permission or the payment of royalty fees.
  160. Corkage
    A charge placed on beer, liquor, and wine brought into a facility but purchased elsewhere.
  161. Corner Booth/Stand
    An exhibit space with exposure on at least two aisles, often sold by show managers at a premium rate.
  162. Corporate Rate
    Special rate for sleeping rooms or other goods and services that is made available to business travelers.  These rates may vary by corporation, depending on the negotiated agreement.
  163. Corporate Travel
    The market segment comprised of groups or individuals that work for a given company and are traveling for business reasons at the company's expense.
  164. Countervailing Duty
    An extra duty imposed by the US Secretary of the Treasury to offset export grants, bounties, or subsidies paid to foreign suppliers in certain countries by the governments of those countries as an incentive to exports.
  165. Country of Origin
    A person's country of natural birth or citizenship; an item's country of manufacture, production or agricultural growth.
  166. Courier
    1) European term for a travel professional who supervises arrival details and escorts tours. 2) A messenger or messenger service.
  167. Cover
    1) tab le setting for one person. 2) Actual number of meals, or servings, served at a food function. 3) Dome placed over a plate, used to keep food warm/cold.
  168. Covers
    Actual number of meals served at a catered meal function or in a restaurant.
  169. Credentials Committee
    Committee formed to verify that individuals have the necessary qualifications to attend a meeting, cast votes at a meeting, or become a member of an association.
  170. Crescent-Round Set-Up
    Seating at round tables with chairs placed at two thirds to three quarters of the table and no seating with backs to the speaker.  Used for banquet-to-meeting or meeting-to-banquet quick set.
  171. Cross Aisle
    A smaller aisle perpendicular to a larger main aisle.
  172. CSP
    Certified Speaking Professional
  173. Customs
    The governmental authorities designated to collect duties levied by a country on imports and exports.  The term also applies to the procedures involved in such collection.
  174. Customs Broker
    An individual or company which provides customs clearing services to shippers of goods to and from another country.
  175. Customs House
    An individual or firm licensed to enter and clear goods through customs.
  176. Cut-Off Date
    Designated date when a hotel will release any unsold sleeping rooms in a group block and make them available to the general public.  The date is typically three to four weeks before the event.
  177. Cut-Off Time
    A specific point in time at which the exhibition contractor will cease (for the day) all unloading or loading activites.  In transportation environment this refers to the specific time a shipment must be tendered to a carrier in order to receive service that day.  For example, a flight that departs at 10:00 pm may have a cargo cut-off time of 7:00 pm.
  178. Dais
    Raised platform usually above the floor of a hall or large room.
  179. Damage Clause
    Part of a contract dealing with procedures, penalties, and rights of the party causing damages.
  180. Data Projector
    A self-contained unit with a LCD panel, light source and lens that prjects video output from a computer onto a projection screen or other surface.
  181. Debate
    A discussion which takes place within a meeting, a public or private sitting or in one of the various types of assembly or meeting.
  182. Declared Value
    Shipper's stated value of entire shipment in terms of dollars.
  183. Decor
    Props, lighting, or other decorative elements used to create a theme, ambiance or modd at a function or special event.
  184. Decorator
    An individual or company providing installation & dismantle and booth/stand and hall dressing services for a trade show and/or its exhibitors.  Decorator services may be provided by carpenters, sign painters or others depending upon union jurisdiction.  Term applies to both contractor and skilled craftsperson.
  185. Definite Booking
    Space reservations confirmed in writing.
  186. Delegate
    Outside of North America, a general term for registered meeting participant.  In some instances a voting representative at a meeting.
  187. Demi-Pension
     A rate inclusive of breakfast and dinner, in addition to the room.  In the US and Canada it is called Modified American Plan, which means breakfast and one other meal (usually dinner).
  188. Desktop Publishing
    Using a personal computer to prepare materials for printing.
  189. Destination Management Company
    DMC.  A professional services company possessing extensive local knowledge, expertise and resources, specializing in the design and implementation of events, activities, tours, transportation and program logistics.
  190. Destination Marketing Organization
    DMO.  A non profit organization, defined and recognized by it's incorporated local government entity as the representative organization reponsible for promoting the economic development of their community through travel and tourism.  DMOs assist planners by providing information on local resources and services, including site selection, pre-conference and post-convention services.
  191. Dine Around
    Use of a number of restaurants in a destination with reservations and billing arrangements to one particular client.
  192. Direct Spending
    All expenditures associated with an event that flow into the host destinations local economy.  Direct spending includes attendee spending, exhibitor spending and event organizer spending.
  193. Discussion Group
    A group of participants in a separate debate within some sypes of meetings.  Similar to a working group but with no expection of reports or papers.
  194. Display Rules & Regulations
    A set of specifications for exhibit construction endorsed by all major exhibit industry associations.  Also refers to the individual additional rules which may be adopted by event management.  Guidelines are provided by the Inernational Association of Exhibition Executives.
  195. Distance Learning
    A type of education where learners can communicate with faculty and other learners via email, electronic forums, chat, webconferencing and other forms of online communication.  Includes correspondence courses, audio, video and internet delivery.  Meeting and event websites can facilitate distance learning by offering online educational programs.
  196. DMC Consortium
    National and/or international alliances of destination management companies who form select communities for the purpose of sharing collective efforst for business sharing, education, ethics and destination management industry monitoring.
  197. Dock Receipt
    A receipt issued by an ocean carrier to acknowledge receipt of a shipment at the carrier's dock or warehouse facilities.
  198. Double Booking
    1) Reserving space for two groups to use the same space at the same time and neither can be fully accommodated as contracted. 2) An organization reserving space in more than one venue for the same event. 3) Two or more reservations made for the same traveler for the same dates.
  199. Double Cloth
    Use of two tablecloths on a banquet table for decorative purposes, to muffle sound, or to attach to skirting.  Usually two different colors are used.
  200. Double Room
    A hotel guest room that may be occupied by two persons.
  201. Double Room Rate
    The price per person for a double-occupancy hotel guest room.
  202. Double-double Room
    A hotel guest room with two double beds.
  203. Downstage
    Front of the stage, closest to the audience.
  204. Dram Shop Laws
    In the US, a term for laws covering the liability of people serving alcoholic beverages.  Under dram shop laws, a party injured by an intoxicated person can sue establishments contributing to that person's intoxication.
  205. Draped Booth/Stand
    A booth/stand where the back and side walls are constructed using pipe and drape (typically provided by management).
  206. Drayage
    Outdated term for material handling
  207. Drayage Contractor
    Outdated term for company responsible for handling exhibit materials.
  208. Dressing the Exhibit
    Placing graphics, plants, literature and applying any finishing touches to the display.
  209. Duoserve Property
    A hotel property in which logistics are handled by the convention services manager (CSM), with catering handled by a separate manager.
  210. Duty
    Fee levied on imported and exported goods.  Duties are generally based on the value of the goods (ad valorem duties), some other factors such as weight or quantity (specific duties), or a combination of value and other factors (compound duties).
  211. Early Arrival
    1) To reach your destination before the appointed date or time. 2) When a hotel guest with a confirmed reservation requests to check in to his/her room prior to the scheduled date and/or check-in time. 3) Arrival prior to arrival of the majority of the group.
  212. Early Registration
    Registration received before a pre-defined date, usually offering a lower fee.
  213. Early-Out
    A guest who checks out of a hotel one or more days earlier than the scheduled departure date.  AKA Under-Stay, Unexpected departure.  Compare with Overstay.
  214. Economic Impact (Total)
    The total value of an event, including secondary spending (indirect and induced) on the host destinations local economy over and above the original direct spending.  These secondary impacts, when combined with the original direct spending, result in the total economic impact of an event.
  215. Economic Multiplier
    Total economic impact divided by direct spending.
  216. Ellipsoidal Spotlight
    Type of adjustable spotlight formerly known as a klieg light.  It is used to light lecterns, signs and areas that need a tightly focused pool of light. 
  217. Emergency Action Plan
    Procedures about how to react and respond to an emergency situation, such as medical emergencies, fire and bomb threats.
  218. Empty Sticker
    The tag indicating a crate may be moved into storage.  The sticker identifies the exhibitor and the return location for the crate.
  219. End Cap
    An exhibit space with aisles on three sides.  AKA Peninsula.
  220. English Breakfast
    A large, hearty breakfast that includes juice, fruit, hot and cold cereal, eggs, meat (often fish), pastries with jellies and preserves, and made to order foods such as omelets and crepes, and hot beverages.
  221. English Service
    Food is brough to the table on a tray, presented to the host, who either cuts the food him/herself or chooses to have it done by the server away from the table.  Vegetables are placed in bowls on the table for guests to serve themselves.  AKA Family Style Service.
  222. Errors and Omissions Insurance
    Often referred to as E&O insurance.  A form of insurance that indemnifies the insured for any loss sustained because of an error or oversight on his part.
  223. Event Specification Guide
    ESG.  The preferred term for a comprehensive document that outlines the complete requirements and instructions of an event.  This document is typically authored by the event planner and is shared with all appropriate vendors as a vehicle to communicate the expections of services for a project.  The industry accepted practice is to use the APEX Event Specifications Guide, which can be found at the CIC website.  Sometimes called Staging Guide, Resume.
  224. Eurpoean Plan
    A room rate that does not include meals.
  225. Evaluation
    1) Critiquing and rating the overall success of an event.  2) Developing an event profile from accurate event statistics. 3) A systematic process to determine the value of an activity.
  226. Event Technology
    Any technical and technology needs to support meetings or events.  Includes items such as audio-visual, computers, software, power, networking and connectivity.
  227. Event-Contracted Block
    ECB.  The rooms that are contracted for by an event organizer with a hotel(s) or housing facility(s) for a particular event.
  228. Exclusive
    Any agreement which limits who may provide specific products or services under certain conditions to only one party.  No other contractor is allowed to provide the same services or products in that facility.
  229. Exclusive Contract
    Contract between a facility and a service provider designating that provider as the only source of a specific services or product within the facility.
  230. Exclusive Contractor
    Contractor appointed by event or building management as the sole agent to provide specific services or products.
  231. Executive Conference Center
    ECC.  A first class conference facility that caters to executive level events.
  232. Exhibit booth/stand
    Individual display area constructed to showcase products or convey a message, or to sell products or services.
  233. Exhibit House
    Company that fabricates and manages display properties for trade show exhibitors.
  234. Exhibitor Advisory Committee
    Representatives of an event's exhibiting companies who act as advisors to show management on procedures, the needs of exhibitors, and provide feedback for marketing and growing the show.
  235. Exhibitor Appointed Contractor
    EAC.  Any company other than the designated "official" contractor providing a service to an exhibitor.  Can refer to an Install & Dismantle Company (I&D House), photographer, florist or any other type of contractor.
  236. Exhibitor Manual
    Manual or kit, usually developed by the general service contractor for an event, containing general event information, labor/service order forms, rules and regulations and other information pertinent to an exhibitor's participation in an exhibition.
  237. Exhibitor Move-in/move-out
    The time period allowed for exhibitors to prepare their exhibit space for show opening.  The time allowed for exhibitors to dismantle and remove their exhibit following show closing.
  238. Exhibitor Prospectus
    Promotional materials sent to current and prospective exhibitors to encourage participation.  It promotes the value of exhibiting in a specific show and contains information about technical points, cost of exhibition space, a floor plan of the exhibition and an application for participation.
  239. Export Declaration
    Required for shipments valued at more than $2500; used by the US government to monitor the dollar volume of export shipments.
  240. Export License
    A government document which permits the "licensee" to engage in the export of designated goods to certain destinations.
  241. Facilitator
    An individual who guides discussion and/or decision making.
  242. Fair
    1) Event principally devoted to the exhibition of agricultural products or industrial products.  Fairs may also provide entertainment activities.  2) Exhibition of products or services in a specific area of activity held with the objective of promoting business.
  243. Fair Trade
    A market initiative to insure that small farmers in developing countries are paid a fair market price that encourages independence and sustainability.  Agricultural products may be Fair Trade certified.
  244. Familiarization Trip
    Fam Trip.  A program designed to acquaint potential buyers with specific destinations or services and to stimulate the booking of an event.  Often offered in groups, but sometimes on an individual basis.
  245. Family Style Service
    Platters and bowls of food are set on the dining tables, from which guests serve themselves.  Usually involves guests passing the containers to each other.
  246. Fast Fold Screen
    Brand name for a large screen with a frame which folds down into a small case for storage.  The legs of this screen are attached at the sides of the screen, or the screen may be flown from above.
  247. Fishpole
    Holder with microphone often used in Q&A sessions.
  248. Fixed Assets
    Usually non-liquid assets that are integral to the enterprise's day-to-day business operations (eg factories, equipment, furniture and real estate).
  249. Fixed Costs
    The day-to-day cost of doing business that is pre-committed, such as salaries, insurance, lease expenses, utilities, etc.
  250. Fixed Expense
    Expense incurred regardless of the number of event attendees.
  251. Flash Box
    Smoke-producing device for special effects.
  252. Flat Rate
    Flat rate for which a hotel agrees to offer any of its available sleeping rooms (with the exception of suites) to a group.  Final assignment of rooms is at the discretion of the hotel. AKA run of the house rate.
  253. Floor Load
    Maximum amount of weight per square foot/meter a floor can support.
  254. Floor Manager
    Person retained by event management to supervise the installation, dismantling and operation of the exhibit area.
  255. Floor Marking
    The process of marking the floor of an empty exhibit hall to inducate the locations where individual booths/stands will be set.
  256. Floor Order
    Order for exhibitor services placed on-site after exhibit set up begins.  Usually more expenseve than an Advanced Order.
  257. Fly
    Objects, scenery or audio-visual equipment mounted from above.
  258. Follow Spot
    Manually movable spotlight (a brilliant light projected onto a particular area).
  259. Force Majeure
    An event (eg war, labor strike, extreme weather, or other disruptive circumstances) or effect that cannot be reasonably anticipated or avoided.
  260. Force Majeure Clause
    A clause in an agreement that excuses performace in the event that a force majeure makes the performance impracticable or impossible.
  261. Forced Freight
    Forced freight is generally removed from the hall at a specified time and held by the general contractor or offical common carrier or until payment is made for forwarding.
  262. Forcing the Floor
    Removal of freight from the event floor after the event close that was not picked up by an exhibitor's carrier, or shipments left behind at the booth/stand at the close of the event without a bill of lading.
  263. Foreign Exchange Currency Risk
    Risk that an organization takes when dealing with foreign currency due to exchange rates fluctuating over time.
  264. Foreign Sales Agent
    An individual or firm that serves as an international representative of, and seeks sales abroad for, a domestic company.
  265. Foreign Trade Zone
    An area within a country where imported goods can be stored or processed without being subject to import duty.
  266. Forum
    Open discussion with audience, panel, and moderator.  A meeting or part of a meeting set aside for an open discussion by recognized participants on subjects of public interest.
  267. Forwarded Contract
    An agreement guaranteeing a specific price for a product or service at a given future date.  May also guarantee a specific rate of exchange when foreign currency is used.
  268. Foul Bill of Lading
    A receipt for goods issued by a carrier with an indication that the goods were damaged when received.
  269. Four Hour Call
    Minimum work period for which union labor must be paid in special circumstances (generally, a minimum call is one hour).  Not to be confused with minimum charges to exhibitors applied by conractors that service events.
  270. Freight
    Properties, products, and other materials that are shipped.
  271. Freight Forwarder
    A third-party logistics provider which handles export shipments for customers using common carries.
  272. Freight on Board
    FOB.  When something is purchased and paid for with terms 'FOB origin' it means the responsibility of the seller stops when the 'goods' are delivered to the transporting company at the point of origin.  It is the responsibility of the buyer to pay for transportation.
  273. French Service - Banquet Style
    A style of food service.  In this pattern of service platters of food are composed in the kitchen.  Each food item is then served from the guests left by the server from the platters to individual plates. 
  274. French Service Cart Style
    A style of food service.  This pattern of service involves the use of serving pieces (usually silver); heating and garnishing of food table-side by a captain; and the serving of food on a heated plate, which is then served to the guest by a server.  Plated entrees are usually served from the right, bread and butter and salad from the left and beverages from the right.  Removed from right.
  275. Fresnel Lens
    Lens which produces a soft edged beam of light.  Theatrical fixture with adjustable lens 150 W through 1500 W.
  276. Front Projection
    Projection of an image onto the front surface of a light reflecting screen from a projector placed within or behind the audience.
  277. Gala Dinner
    Primary social function of an event, usually in the evening, including entertainment or speeches after a formal meal.
  278. Ganging Menus
    When two or more groups in facility have the same menu.
  279. Gate Show
    Exhibition open to the public usually requiring an entrance fee.  AKA Consumer Show, Public Show.  Compared to Trade Show.
  280. Gel
    Theatrical color filter used in conjunction with theatrical projection fixtures and spotlights.
  281. General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
    GATT.  A multilateral treaty aimed at reducing trade barriers between the signatory countries and promoting trade through tariff concesions.
  282. General Assembly
    General and formal meeting of an organization or company attended by a specified proportion at least of its members for the purpose of deciding legislative direction, policy matters, the election of internal committees and approval of financial matters.  An assembly generally obvserved certain fixed rules of procedure.
  283. General Liability Insurance
    An insurance policy that provides protection against claims involving bodily injury and property damage to third parties.
  284. General Service Contractor
    GSC.  An organization that provides event management and exhibitors with a wide range of services, sometimes including but not limited to distributing the exhibitor manual, installation & dismantle, creating and hanging signage and banners, laying carpet, drayage, and providing booth/stand furniture.
  285. Glass Beaded Screen
    Screen whose surface is covered with tiny glass beads which reflect a bright image back toward the audience, but have a narrow viewing angle.
  286. GMIC
    Green Meetings Industry Council
  287. Gobo
    A pre-cut, etched pattern fabricated from metal or glass that fits in a lighting instrument to form projected light into a shape (logo, graphic, scenery, etc).
  288. Goods and Services Tax
    GST. Fee imposed on the sale of goods and services.
  289. Gooseneck Light
    Small (75-150 watt) spot light with flexible stem.
  290. Gray Water
    Non-drinkable water, not potable.
  291. Greenwich Mean Time
    GMT.  Time on the line of longitude that passes through Greenwich, England used as a basis for calculating time throughout the world.
  292. Gross Square Feet/Meters
    1) Total amount of available function space in exhibit hall or other facility. 2) Total amount of space used for a specific show or revent.
  293. Gross Weight
    The full weight of a shipment, including goods and packaging.
  294. Halal
    Food prepared according to Islamic dietary laws.
  295. Half Moon Setup
    A seating arrangement in which 60, 66, 72 inch diameter rounds have seats on two-thirds to three quarters of the table and no seats with their backs to the speaker.  Used for banquet-to-meeting or meeting-to-banquet quick set.
  296. Hand Carry
    Items that an exhibitor is allowed to carry unaided into an event facility without being charged.
  297. Hand Service
    One server is assigned for each two guests.  Servers wear white gloves.  When serving, they stand behind their guests holding two composed plates.  When the signal is given, all guests are served at the same time.
  298. Herringbone Setup
    Seating arrangement in which chairs are arranged in rows slated in a v-shape and separated by a center aisle.  They face the head table or speaker.  AKA Chevrom Setup.
  299. High Season
    Period when the demand for a suppliers product or service is highest.  Prices general increase in high season.  AKA Peak season.
  300. Hold Harmless
    An indemnity clause that provides that both parties agree to defend and/or compensate the other party for asserted claims against, or liability damages incurred by, the other party due to the acts or omissions of the first party.
  301. Hollow Circle Setup
    Seating arrangment of tables and/or chairs all facing each other in a single circle.
  302. Hollow Square Setup
    Seating arrangment of tables set in a square or rectangle with chairs placed around the outside of the table.  Center table is hollow.
  303. Honorarium
    Voluntary payment made for services where no fee is legally required.
  304. Horseshoe Setup
    Tables set up in rounded u-shape with chairs placed outside.  Chairs inside if needed.  AKA U-shape setup.
  305. Hospitality Suite
    1) Room or suite of rooms used to entertain guests. 2) An event in the US usually separate from the exhibit, in which refreshments are served and exhibitor personnel and visitors socialize.
  306. Host Bar
    Private room bar set up where guests do not pay for drinks.  AKA Open bar.
  307. House Count
    Number of guests or sleeping rooms actually occupied on a particular night.
  308. House Lights
    Lighting of room separate from stage  lighting.
  309. Houseman
    Service-staff member who handles function-room setup and tear down.
  310. Housing Bureau
    Organization that provides reservation services for a group and its attendees.
  311. Image Magnification
    Technology by which presenters image is projected onto a large screen, allowing large audiences to see details from the stage.  AKA I-Mag.
  312. In Conjunction With
    ICW.  An event or function that occurs because of another event.
  313. Incidentals
    Expenses other than room and tax, billed to a guests account (eg, phone, room service, etc).
  314. Inclusive
    Price charged clients that includes all applicable gratuities and consumption taxes.
  315. Inclusive Rate
    1) For lodging and accommodations, the amount charged for a room, usually including breakfast (or other meals), taxes and service charge.  2) For food and beverage or catering, a rate that includes taxes, gratuities and/or service charges.
  316. Indemnification Clause
    A contract clause in which one party agrees to pay damages or claims that the other party may be required to pay to another.  For example, if a hotel is sued by an attendee that is injured at an event due to the fault of the group, an indemnification clause might require the group to pay back the hotel.  Some times the law requires one party to indemnify another even without a specific clause.  Generally, the terms of the clause will be followed over the state law.
  317. Independent Show Management Company
    1) A contractor hired by an exhibitor to perform event services independent of event mangement-appointed contractors.  2) Any individual or company hired to perform event services on a contract basis.
  318. Indirect Costs
    Also called overhead or administrative costs, these are expenses not directly related to the event.  They can include salaries, rent, and building and equipment maintenance.
  319. Induced Spending
    Occurs when employees in a host destinations travel industry and its suppliers spend their wages in the local economy.  This chain of buying and selling among businesses and employees continues until the original direct spending leaks out of the local economy.
  320. Informal Meeting
    Informal gathering, not necessarily social.
  321. Infringement
    Use of floor space outside exclusive booth/stand area.
  322. Inherently Flame Resistant
    Material that is permanently flame resistant without chemical treatment.
  323. In-House
    An adjective used to define services which are performed within the company or organization, rather than being subcontracted.
  324. In-House Contractor
    Contractor retained by a facility to be onsite and provide services as needed, sometimes on an exclusive basis.  In some cases, planners are not required to use their services, but may be charged a surcharge or facility fee for bringing in an outside contractor for the same service.
  325. Injection Molding
    Method of protecting exhibit properties.
  326. Inland Bill of Lading
    A bill of lading used in transporting goods overland to the exporters international carrier.  Although a bill of lading can sometimes be used, it is usually necessary to prepare both an inland bill of lading and an ocean bill of lading for export shipments.
  327. Inline Booth/Stand
    Exhibit space with booths/stands on both sides and back.
  328. Ins
  329. Installation and Dismantle
    I&D.  1) The setup and teardown of exhibits. 2) Firm that does I&D work.
  330. Installer
    Skilled labor used to setup displays at events.  The union affiliation of the installer will vary based upon the locale and the facility in question.
  331. Institute
    In depth instructional meeting providing intensive education on a particular subject.
  332. Integrated Marketing
    Marketing activities with a common focus on the marketplace or a customer segment.  The execution of each individual piece of the integrated marketing plan is consistent with, and supportive of, each of the other pieces of the plan.
  333. Intelligent Lighting
    Lighting instruments that can be computer controlled to move light around the room, and project color and patterns on screens, scenery, walls or floor.
  334. Interactive Exhibits
    Exhibits that engage visitors through direct interaction with display components, working models, simulations, or multi-sensory or multi-media elements.
  335. Interactive Learning
    Learning activities that involve hands-on, direct experience activity by the learners, and interaction between learners.
  336. Interactive Response
    A system which enables the audience to respond to prepared questions by means of a multifunction keypad, text messaging or other electronic systems.  Responses are collected and tabulated by software and can be shared or displayed graphically.
  337. interactive video
    Video programming which allows the viewer to be involved in an active way with the information to be presented.
  338. International Freight Forwarder
    A third-party logistics provider which handles export shipments for customers using common carriers.
  339. Interpretation in Relay
    Oral translation utilizing two interpreters.  Because the first interpreter is not master of the second language, another makes the final interpretation to the audience.
  340. Interpreters Booth/Stand
    A soundproof cubicle in which the interpreter works.
  341. Invitation Program
    A provisional program sometimes incorporating a call for papers.  The program gives details of venue, participants, agenda, accommodations, etc.
  342. IP Address
    Internet Protocol Address.  A numeric value unique to an individual computer or electronic device that identifies it on a network.  The IP address is assigned by a network adminstrator, Internet Service Provider, or other network hardware.
  343. IPO
    Individual Pays Own.
  344. Island Booth/Stand
    Booth/stand space with aisles on all four sides.
  345. Island Exhibit
    A display space that is exposed to aisles on all sides.
  346. Jigging
    Special dividers, sectioning and protective padding inside exhibit crates.
  347. Job Foreman
    One who is in charge of specific projects.
  348. Joing Agreement
    Union contract covering more than one employer and a union, more than one union and an employer or a number of employees and a number of unions.
  349. Junction Box
    A distribution point for electrical power.
  350. Junior Suite
    A hotel room that features a separate living-sitting area (although not a separate room), in addition to the bedroom.  AKA mini-suite.
  351. Jurisdiction
    1) The jobs that may be performed by a specific labor union. 2) The locality where a contractual dispute is decided. 3) In law, the ability of a court to hear and decide a matter brought before it.
  352. Jurisdictional Dispute
    Conflict between unions concerning the right to control certain jobs in a particular trade or industry.
  353. Keystone Effect
    Distortion of a projected image whereby the image is wider on top and narrower on bottom.  Keystone effect is caused when an image source is not perpendicular to the center point of the screen or projection surface.
  354. KOH
    A light fixture that is installed from catwalks, ceilings, or truss systems, and can easily light up a 10x20 booth/stand space.  It cannot be installed on the exhibit itself due to the temperature at which it burns.
  355. L/C
    Document issues by a bank per instruction from a buyer of goods, authorizing the seller to draw a specified sum of money under specified terms.
  356. LA
    Letter of Authority
  357. Lanai
    Patio or balcony overlooking a garden or water.
  358. Lead Retrieval
    The process whereby exhibitors receive a potential customers contact information in a standardized manner.  A system for capturing and following-up on leads generated at an exhibition.
  359. Lead Tracking
    A manual or automated system used to conduct follow-up activities for sales prospects resulting from an event.
  360. Learning Environment
    The physiological, psychological, physiological social/cultural, industry, nutritional, technological, physical, service, personnel, and evaluation factors surrounding the learning experience.
  361. Lectern
    A stand upon which a speaker may rest notes or books.  May be "standing" which rests on the floor, or "table-top" which is placed on a table.  Often confused with podium.
  362. Leko
    Type of adjustable spotlight used to light lecterns, signs and areas that need a tightly focused pool of light.
  363. Lenticular Screen
    Screen finish with characteristic silver-colored finish which has brighter reflective characteristics than a matte screen but with a wider viewing angle than a beaded screen.
  364. Less Than Truckload
    LTL.  Rates applicable when quantity of freight is less than the volume of truckload minimum weight.
  365. Letter of Agreement
    Contract.  Document outlining proposed services, space, or products which becomes binding upon signature by authorized representatives of both parties.  It lists services, foods, beverages and so forth.
  366. Letter of Credit
    LC.  A document issued by a bank per instructions from a buyer of goods, authorizing the seller to draw a specified sum of money under specified terms.
  367. Liability Clause
    Part of a contract outlining conditions of liability.
  368. Liability Disclaimer
    Legal statement releasing the organization from responsibility for any arrangements made by attendees with services listed by the organization (ie, child care).
  369. Licensing Agreement
    A right or permission granted by the owner of a property (tangible or intangible) to engage in some business or occupation or engage in some transaction, which would be unlawful without such right, or permission.  A business arrangement in which the manufacturer of a product (or a firm with proprietary rights over certain technology, trademarks, etc) grants permission to some other group or individual to manufacture that product (or make use of that proprietary material) in return for specified royalties or other payment.  Many convention center agreements are written as license agreements.
  370. Light Bar
    A bar with a light that hangs behind a header.
  371. Light Box
    Enclosure with lighting and translucent face of plastic or glass.
  372. Lighting
    1) Service offered by electrical contractor for illumination. 2) Booth/stand or hall illumination. 3) Existing light provided by the venue for functionality and safety. 4) Controlled application of the art of lighting to impact sales, achieve atmosphere and otherwise enhance the experience of the event.
  373. fLighting Control Console
    Desk-type housing, used to contain the controls required for adjusting production lighting.  AKA Master Control.
  374. Lighting Director
    Person who designs the lighting, directs placement of lighting equipment, and calls lighting cues onsite.
  375. Lighting Grid
    Structures used to support lights and electrical outlets.
  376. Lighting Plot
    A print showing the location and type of all lights used in a boothstand, or in a meeting environment.
  377. Lighting Truss
    A construction of tubular steel or aluminum alloy onto which lighting instruments are hung and which is in turn suspended above the stage or exhibit.
  378. Likert Scale
    Common question format, which uses standardized response options.
  379. Line of Sight
    A line of vision from an observiers eye (such as an audience member) to a distant point (such as a stage).
  380. Linear Display
    Also "In-line Display".  Exhibit space that shares one or more borders with neighboring exhibits.
  381. Lockout
    1) Refusal by a facility to allow guests access to their guest rooms. 2) Labor action where employers refuse access to the facility by employees.
  382. Lock-up
    Storage area which can be locked.
  383. Loop
    1) Closed electric circuit. 2) A continuously repeated segment of music, dialogue, or images.
  384. Loop Fabric
    Fabric to which velcro fastener fabric will adhere.
  385. Loss Leader
    Item offered by a retailer at cost or less than cost to attract customers.  AKA Price Leader.
  386. Low Season
    Period when the demand for a suppliers product or service is lowest.  Prices generally decrease in low season.  AKA Value Season.
  387. Lowboy
    A type of truck that can be adapted for picking up loads at ground level.
  388. Low-Key Lighting
    Lighting in which picture intensity produces limited bright areas.
  389. Magnetic Key Systems
    Means by which doors in hotels or other facilities are locked or unlocked.  Usually, these are cards as opposed to actual keys.  The system permits security staff members to know what key was used to enter the room and at what time.
  390. Mag-Stripe
    Magnetic Stripe.  A lead retrieval system using a magnetic strip on either the back of the paper badge or on plastic badges similar to credit cards.
  391. Make Work Practices
    Union practices for spreading work by limiting production or by requiring employment of more workers than necessary for a particular job.
  392. Manifest
    Final official listing of all passengers and/or cargo aboard a transportation vehicle or vessel.
  393. Marine Insurance
    Broadly, insurance covering loss or damage of goods at sea.  Marine insurance will typically compensate the owner of merchandise for losses sustained from fire, shipwreck, piracy, and various other causes, but excludes losses which can be legally recovered from the carrier.
  394. Mark
    Taped or chalked symbol on studio or stage floors designating exact placement of props and actors.  AKA Spike Mark.
  395. Market Segments
    Categorization of people, organizations or businesses by professional discipline or primary areas of interest for the purposes of sales analysis or assignment.
  396. Market Share
    The percentage of the total sales (from all sources) of a service or product represented by the sales made by an enterprise.  ie, sales divided by total sales.
  397. Markup
    Difference between the cost and the selling price of a given product.  Difference between the net rate charged by a tour operator, hotel, or other supplier and the retail-selling price of the service.  Generally a percentage of the net rate rather than a fixed amount, as in a 20 percent markup on the net.
  398. Marshalling Yard
    A holding area where trucks or buses check in and wait for instructions before delivering or picking up freight or passengers.
  399. Mask
    1) Scenic drape used to obscure undesirable view from the audience or to protect or cover. 2) An item used or worn to hide the face. 3) Covering an item with masking tape.
  400. Masking Drapes
    Drapes used to cover storage and other unsightly areas, unused areas or for security.
  401. Material Handling
    Services performed by general service contractor that includes delivery of exhibit materials from the dock to assigned space, removing empty crates, returning crates at the end of the event for re-crating, and delivering materials back to the dock for carrier loading.  It is a two-way charge, incoming and outgoing.  Sometimes referred to as drayage, material handling is the preferred term.
  402. Matte Screen
    Screen having a flat or matte white finish which does not reflect as effectively as a glass-bead screen, but can be viewed from virtually all front angles.
  403. Matte White
    Type of non-shiny screen surface used for front projection.  It is the least expensive type of screen.
  404. Maximum Pick-Up Number
    Every week leading up to an event, the event organizer should receive a room pick-up report from each hotel involved in the event.  One of those weeks will have a very high number (which is the maximum pick-up number).  This information is important to include in a post event report.
  405. Mbps
    Megabits (millions if bits) per second.  A rate of data transmission over a computer network
  406. Media Kit
    Packet of information that is supplied to the media; contains all the details of an event that are required to attract media attention and attendees.
  407. Mediation
    Dispute resolution process in which the parties use a third party to asist them in reaching a compromise.  The mediator may work with both sides together, or may act as "go between" in an attempt to move the sides toward agreement.  The mediator may act informally, or be appointed by a judge or by agreement of the parties through an alternative dispute resolution organization like the American Arbitration Association (AAA) or the Judicial Arbitration and Mediation Service (JAMS).  Unlike arbitration, a mediator is not empowered to impose a decision on the parties.
  408. Meet and Greet
    Service for meeting and greeting persons upon arrival in a city, usually at the airport, pier or rail station and assisting them with entrance formalities, collecting baggage and obtaining transportation.
  409. Meeting Profile
    A written report outlining statistics of previous events, anticipated use of all services, profile of attendees, hotel occupancy patterns, etc.
  410. Microphone, Omnidirectional
    Microphone that picks up sound from all directions.
  411. Microphone, PZM
    Pressure Zone Microphone.  AKA Boundary Microphone.  This type of microphones can be placed on a large surface such as a table, floor, wall or lectern.  It picks up sound from entire room and is often recommended for conferences, group discussions, interviews, lectures and recordings.
  412. Microphone, Unidirectional
    Microphone that picks up sound primarily from the direction in which it is pointed.
  413. Minimum Call
    Agreed upon minimum number of hours of work to be done by a worker under the labor agreement.  In cases where the work to be done is shorter than the minimum call, the worker is guaranteed payment for the full minimum.
  414. Mix
    1) Visual repetitive and/or alternating projection of two different slides on the screen used to add emphasis. 2) (sound) adjustment of each microphone for volume and sound quality.
  415. Mixer
    1) Audio unit by which sound signals from all sources feed into one system; allows for dissimilar inputs (microphone and line) to be combined and controlled into one output. 2) An informal get together to give members of a group an opportunity to meet one another.
  416. Mock-up
    A full-scale model of a propsed structure.
  417. Model
    1) An object made in miniature representing something to be constructed. 2) A person stationed in an exhibit to demonstrate a product, provide attraction to booth/stand or greet visitors.
  418. Modified American Plan
    A type of room rate that includes breakfast and one other meal (usually dinner). 
  419. Modular Exhibit
    An exhibit that uses standardized components (eg, panels, frames) that can be assembled and reassembled in different configurations for different needs.
  420. Modular Panels
    Partition units (walls, doorframes, etc) in standard sizes, used for building booths/stands in the sizes desired in that context.
  421. Monophonic
    Mono.  Sound from one source, such as a single loudspeaker or earphone.  In most concert performances, this is the type of sound provided to the audience.
  422. Monochrome
    Images reproduced on a black and white television system.
  423. MOU
    Memorandum of Understanding.
  424. Multi-channel
    With two or more communication bands (receivers).
  425. Multi-management firm
    A company that offers complete turnkey organizational support for an event, including administrative and event mangement services.
  426. Multi-track Conference
    A conference with parallel program sessions where participants have the choice to follow one or the other track or to jump from one track to the other during the duration of the event.
  427. Music License
    Control of the performance of musical compositions by the composers and authors through granting of a license to perform.  Controlled by the copyright laws. 
  428. Mylar
    Trade name for polyester sheeting, usually clear or decorative metallic reflective finish.
  429. Net rate
    Non-commissionable rate
  430. Net square feet/meters
    Also "NSF".  Actual amount of salable space used by exhibit booths/stands which excludes aisles, lounges, registration areas, etc.
  431. Net Weight
    Weight of goods without the shipping container.
  432. Network
    Two or more computers or peripherals that are linked together for the purpose of sharing data.
  433. Non-performance
    To neglect to carry out an agreement.
  434. Objective
    Formalized statement of outcomes to be anticipated as a result of the educational process.
  435. Obstructed View
    View of stage from audience seating which is blocked.
  436. Occupancy Rate
    1) In hotel/motel industry, the percentage of total number of available sleeping rooms actually occupied.  Derived by dividing the total number of rooms occupied during a given time period (night, week, year) by the total number of rooms available for occupancy during that same period. 2) Measurement of building use, usually expressed as an annual percentage rate comparing potential facility capacity to actual usage.
  437. Off Premise Catering
    Foods usually prepared in a central kitchen and transported for service to an off-site location.
  438. On Consumption
    A term used in food and beverage that refers to the purchasing option based on the amount utilized by the group.  The organization pays for the food and beverage based on the actual food and beverage served.
  439. On-Center
    Refers to measurement of space from center of a solid object (such as a column) to another point.
  440. One Ten/Sixty
    Common term describing normally available current in North America.  Full expression is 110 volt/60 cycle.  Many Europeans and South American areas have 220 volt/50 cycle power only.
  441. Open Space Session
    Sessions where topics for conversations emerge from the group.  People who want to lead a conversation post discussion topics during a news gathering.  Then, participants split up and go to the topic area for which they have the most passion and interest.  The underlying assumption is that whoever shows up to the topic are the right people to be there.  No assignments are made.  Each group takes notes, so that they can share back or publish their ideas.  Some people may decide to move from group to group.  If no one shows up it means that there is no interest in that topic.
  442. Open Ended Incentives Program
    Incentive program where the possible number of winners are not predetermined.
  443. Operations
    Performing the practical work of operating a program.  Usually involves the in-house control and handling of all phases of the services, both with suppliers and with clients.
  444. Optical Sound
    Sound that is recorded by photographic means on film, sound recorded on and subsequently played back from an optical or photographic soundtrack, as opposed to a magnetic soundtrack.
  445. Opt-In Marketing
    An email marketing campaign that only sends messages to users who have requested (or opted-in) to receive specific types of information.  Email conference reminders and newsletters are examples of opt-in email marketing campaigns based upon permission marketing.
  446. Order of Precedence
    A system which ranks dignitaries according to international protocol for purposes of seating, honors or ceremonies.
  447. Outbound Operator
    A company that takes groups outside a given city or country to another city or country.
  448. Overlay
    1) Clear acetate film used to separate different components of art work. 2) Tissue sheet over artwork on which corrections or alterations are indicated. 3) A panel mounted on another surface. 4) A second, smaller tablecloth used for decorative purposes at banquets.
  449. Pan
    Panorama.  Sideways movement of a camera to film a wide scene.
  450. Panel Discussion
    Instructional technique using a group of people chosen to discuss a topic in the presence of an audience, or for a virtual event, such as a webinar.
  451. Panel Dolly
    L-shaped dolly with wheels on both the vertical and horizontal sides.  Used for moving display panels.
  452. Par Lamp
    A lamp shaped like an automobile headlight that consists of a tungsten source housed in an enclosed lens, which produces a rectangular beam.
  453. Parabolic Screen
    Type of front projection screen surface which is rigid and allows only narrow angle viewing.
  454. Parallax
    An apparent change in the direction of an object, caused by a change in observational position, that provides a new line of sight.
  455. Parallel Session
    Session which has some correspondence or similarity of subject, and is simultaneous to another session.
  456. Parcan
    A 150 watt to 1000 watt lighting instrument that acts like a floodlight providing an even light over a specific area; frequently seen in polished aluminum version, hanging in large groups from a ground support or flying truss system.
  457. Participatory Learning
    Occurs when the participants share knowledge, experience and work together to learn.
  458. Pascal
    The unit of pressue or stress in the International System of Units (SI). In the US, PSI (Pounds per Square Inch) is used instead.
  459. Patch Panel
    Plug and jack assembly permitting studio outlets to be temporarily connected to dimmer outlet circuits; also found in studio sound systems.  AKA Patch Bay.
  460. Pattern of Event Dates
    The dates during which an event can be conducted.  may be designated by specific dates, months, or seasons.
  461. PAX
    Abbreviation for passengers.
  462. PBX Operator
    Switchboard operator.
  463. PCO
    Professional Congress Organizer.  Companies or individuals specialized in organizing events on behalf of a client organization.  Not to be confused with Destination Management Company (DMC).
  464. Peaks
    Chart or list of AV equipment usage shown as daily totals throughout the duration of an event.
  465. Penalty
    The fee imposed by an airline to change or cancel flights once the ticket (usually a discounted advance purchase) has been issued.
  466. Peninsula
    Two or more exhibit spaces back to back with an aisle on three sides
  467. Percent of the Gross
    Type of payment involving a fixed percent of the gross income for that service.  This type of agreement is often used by facilities as the rental.
  468. Percent of the Net
    Type of payment involving a fixed percent of the net income after costs of providing that service.  This type of payment is often used in services provided by exclusive contractors within a facility
  469. Percentage of Change Formula
    Formula used to establish the variability in cost for future facility services.
  470. Performing Rights Societies
    Societies whose purpose is to provide collective licensing for copyrighted music.  ie, ASCAP, BMI, SESAC.
  471. Perimeter Seating
    Seating arrangement in which chairs are placed around the walls of a room.  The chairs are often meant for spectators to observe an activity or event in the center of the room.
  472. Peripheral Block
    A group of rooms reserved by a party outside fo the event contracted block (ECB) but is present in the city as a result of the main event.  Consumed room nights should be credited to the main events total room nights for historical tracking purposes.  May be used to help offset attrition charges against the ECB.  Usually negotiates its own terms.
  473. Permanent Exhibit
    A product siplay held on a long-term basis, i.e., museum exhibit, office exhibit, mart, showroom, etc.
  474. Permanent Import
    In case of sales, with payment of duties and value added tax (VAT) or in case of free distribution, disposable or consumables usually exempted from payment of duties and VAT depending on each country.  Quantity and value exempted at discretion of customs authorities.
  475. Permission Marketing
    An email marketing campaign that only sends messages to users who have requested (or opted-in) to receive specific types of information.  Email conference reminders and newsletters are examples of opt-in email marketing campaigns based upon permission marketing.
  476. Pica
    Unit to measure type line length.  Approximately 1/6 inch.
  477. Pilaster
    A rectangular column that usually projects about a third of its width from the wall to which it is attached.
  478. Pink Noise
    Filtered white noise that exhibits a constant power in any band of frequencies of the same span percentage.  Generated to test loudspeakers in a room as well as to "tune" a room for best audio reproduction.
  479. Pipe & Drape
    Light-weight aluminum tubing and draperty used to separate exhibit booths/stands, staging areas, and other similar locations.
  480. Planning Matrix
    A grid used to plan meeting formats and finalize subject areas, topics and assignments.
  481. Plated Buffet
    Selection of preplated foods and entress set on a buffet table.  Can also be set on a roll-in cart.
  482. Plated Service
    Foods arranged on individual plates in the kitchen and then served to guests seated at a table.
  483. Plexiglas
    A trade name for acrylic plastic material in common use.
  484. PNR
    Passenger Name Record.  A record created in a CRS/GDS when a reservation is made for a traveler.  A PNR includes a set of identifying code letters and numbers unique to a single reservation, and contains information about a traveler's itinerary.  The PNR forms the basic unit of information from which travel mangement reports are compiled.
  485. Pocket Program
    A shortened version of the event program giving basic information in a way which is easy to refer to and convenient to carry.
  486. Point Source
    Sound originating from a single source, or as if from a single source and filling an entire space.  Type of sound system is most often seen in a concer configuration, where the stage and sound system is at one end of the room and no additional sources of sound are used.
  487. Point-to Multipoint Videoconference
    A videoconference of more than two sites
  488. Pop-up Exhibit
    Lightweight display normally shipped in molded plastic crates.
  489. Port of Entry
    Destination providing customs and immigration services.
  490. Portable Exhibit
    An exhibit that "pops-up" or a self-contained exhibit that is lightweight and easily set up.
  491. Porters
    1) Staff who carry luggage for guests using trains, planes and hotels.  2) Staff who perform cleaning duties.
  492. Post As
    Instructions to a facility indicated the exact way a specific function should be listed on the facility's reader board.
  493. Post-Consumer Material
    An end product that has completed its life cycle as a consumer item and would otherwise have been disposed of a solid waste.  Post-consumer materials include recyclables collected in recycling programs, such as office paper, cardboard, aluminum cans, plastics and metals.
  494. Post-event Report
    PER. The industry preferred term for a report of the details and activities of an event.  A collection of post event reports over time will provide a comprehensive history for an event.
  495. Power Bandwith
    Frequency range over which a power amplifier can produce at least half power (-3dB).  This important specification is the actual indication of an amplifier's true power output capability, since many amplifiers are capable of much higher power outputs if frequency extremes such as those produced by music are ignored.
  496. Power Response
    Measure of a loudspeaker's output with reference to its electrical input.  Power response includes the total sound energy radiated into the acoustic space around the loudspeaker rather than just on-axis.  Flat power response would indicate that a loudspeaker is radiating equal energy into all angles at all frequencies.
  497. Pre-Block
    Assigning a specific guest room prior to the arrival of the guest.
  498. Prefab
    Pre-built exhibit ready for installation.
  499. Preferred Carrier
    Carriers that have alliances with exposition service firms and general service contractors.  They receive preferential treatment, and some discounts may be obtained by using these carriers.
  500. Preliminary Draft
    First draft.  The first version of a paper or document which is subject to further amendment.
  501. Premium Pay
    Extra pay over the regular wage rate for work performed outside or beyond the regular working hours, for work on Saturday, Sunday or holidays, for night shift work, for hazardous, dirty or unpleasant work, and for production in excess of established standards.
  502. Pre-pleated
    Material permanently pleated, ready for installation.
  503. Press Kit
    A collection of publicity items that includes: 1) pertinent data on the meeting, such as agenda, historical data, guest speakers, special events, the meeting property, such as descriptions of public space, etc. 2) information relative to a sponsor or exhibitor's products or services.
  504. Priority Point System
    System of assigning points to exhibiting companies to determine the order in which firms will be allowed to select booth/stand space first for the next event.
  505. Pro Forma
    Financial forms (invoices, profit and loss staements, balance sheets, etc.) based on future expectations; provided or made in advance to describe items or projections.
  506. Pro Forma Invoice
    1) Invoice provided by a supplier prior to the shipment of merchandise, informing the buyer of the kinds and quantities of goods to be sent, their value and important specifications (weight, size, etc). 2) A packing list on which a shipper describes what is being shipped including the quantity, the value, the weight, and dimensions.
  507. Pro Number
    Shipment number designated by the common carrier to a single shipment, used in all cases where the shipment must be referenced.
  508. Proceedings
    Published volume transcribing the full conference sessions, which may or may not include details of the discussion.
  509. Productivity Tickets
    Complimentary tickets awarded by the offical airline after the event according to the number of attendees who used the airline.
  510. Projection Booth
    Platform or area from which audiovisual presentations are controlled.
  511. Projection Distance
    Measurement from the projector to the screen.
  512. Projection Screen
    Surface on which images are displayed.
  513. Promotional Fares
    Reduced fares for travel to particular cities.  The number of seats sold at the reduced fare is limited and therefore early booking is critical.  These tickets also carry many restrictions.
  514. Proscenium Arch
    The visible opening that frames a stage (usually theatrical).
  515. PSI
    Pounds per Square Inch. A measurement of pressure.  Pressure is force per unit area.  The standard unit for pressure outside of the United States is the Pascal (which is one Newton per square meter), which is the unit of pressure or stress in the International System of Units (SI).
  516. Public Accommodation
    A private entity that owns, rents or leases a public facility.
  517. Public Address System
    Audio and/or visual system to convey messages to participants during an event.  AKA PA System.
  518. Public Seminar
    A seminar that is open to the public.  Usually, tickets are sold to individuals.
  519. Quad Box
    Four electrical outlets in one box, which should be grounded.
  520. Quad/Quadruple
    1) Four-channel audio tape recording system. 2) Room with two or more beds for four persons.
  521. Qualifying
    The act of determining a person's authority or financial ability to purchase a product or service or perform a specific function.
  522. Qualitative Data
    Descriptive information that is a record of what is observed, presented in narrative by the respondent.  AKA soft data.
  523. Quality Profits
    Profits that can be sustained year to year over a prolonged period of time.
  524. Quantitative Data
    Information that is represented numerically so you can assign ranks or scores, or determine averages and frequencies.  AKA hard data.
  525. Quarter-round
    Wedge shaped table with one rounded edge.
  526. Quick Set
    Function room set-up that saves room turnover time, limits the number of event rooms required, and avoids additional charges for changing room set-ups.
  527. Quick-change Booth
    Enclosed or draped area, close to the stage, for costume changes.
  528. Rack Rate
    Facility's standard, pre-established guest room rates.
  529. Rail
    Low drape divider between exhibit booths/stands, aKA side rail.
  530. Rain Date
    an alternative event date contracted to use in case of inclement weather.
  531. Rally
    Gathering to promote enthusiasm and excitement.
  532. Ramp Session
    Session added on to the end of the day's program, usually after dinner, to accommodate extra papers or an extra papers of an extra plenary lecture.
  533. Rank and File
    The membership of an organization, other than officers and officials.
  534. Rap Session
    Informal sessions with no specific agenda.
  535. Rapporteur
    Person appointed to note and record the proceedings of sessions and to write summaries of the paper(s) presented for a final summation session.
  536. Rate of Exchange
    The rate of currency exchange established daily as the buying rate of foreign currency by the Federal Reserve Bank. The daily rate is used only when it varies by more than 5% from the quarterly rate.  When applicable, the daily rate is the rate certified on the day of exportation.
  537. Reader Board
    At a facility, a listing, either printed or on a video screen, of the day's events including times and locations.
  538. Readymen
    Nonunion, temporary labor hired from a personnel agency.
  539. Real-time
    When online activities take place at a designated time, they are referred to as real-time events.  A webcast of a keynote presenter that can be watched live over the internet is an example of a real-time event.
  540. Rear Projection
    Video or image presentation where the screen is between the viewer and the projector.
  541. Reasonable Accommodation
    Any provision that aids the participation of a person with a disability, as long as it does not create a hazard to others, a major disruption in business or an undue financial or administrative burden.
  542. Receiving Fee
    Arbitrary fees sometimes imposed by a host government to officially recognize an event.
  543. Receiving Line
    Dignitaries, host, sponsor, and guest of honor lined up to greet guests.
  544. Record Locator
    An identifying number for the Passenger Name Record (PNR) in a file or record.
  545. Refraction
    The change of direction of a light ray passing from one medium to another of different density.
  546. Regional Exclusivity
    A speakers bureau's/agency's exclusivity is limited to a particular region or territory.
  547. Regional Security Officer
    RSO.  Consular official charged with the security of his/her country's nationals while traveling in his region.
  548. Relay Interpreting
    Oral translation whereby an interpreter does not translate directly, but interprets the translation of a colleague, usually because s/he is not qualified to work directly from the original language.
  549. Release
    1) Signed form giving permission to use a person's name, picture, or statement (often in an advertisement). 2) Form signed by presenter allowing recording of presentation. 3) Document provided by management to permit removal of goods from exhibition during event hours. 4) To release space, as in returning unsold air or hotel reservations to the supplier that originally allotted them.
  550. Release Date
    Date beyong which a facility is free to rent the unused sleeping rooms or function space to other groups.
  551. Released Value
    1) Limit of a carrier's liability. 2) Stated value of a shipment when released to the carrier.  If shipper declares a higher value than the per-pound limit, shipping costs will increase.
  552. Request for Proposals
    RFP. A document that stipulates what services the organization wants from an outside contractor and requests a bid to perform such services.
  553. Resort Conference Center
    A conference facility with at least one major amenity, such as golf or tennis.
  554. Restricted Dialing
    The ability to control telephone access often by excluding specific country or area codes and certain types of calls.  This is often put in place for event rooms and show floor locations.
  555. Retention Rate
    1) the percentage of exhibitors or attendees that return to an event from one year to the next. 2) The percentage of an organization's membership or company's employees that remain with the organization or company from one year to another.
  556. Return on Investment
    ROI. 1) Net profit divided by net worth.  A financial ratio indicating the degree of profitability. 2) Net benefits divided by the full loaded meeting costs.
  557. Revenue Management System
    A sophisticated computer based pricing system that vendors use to adjust prices based on anticipated demand.  AKA Yield Mangement.
  558. Reverberation
    Sound which appears to echo and re-echo in weaker and weaker levels.  AKA Reverb.
  559. Reviewing Stands
    Elevated platforms accommodating not more than 50 persons.  Seating facilities, if provided, are normally in the nature of loose chairs.  Reviewing stands accommodating more than 50 persons shall be regulated as grandstands.
  560. RevPAR
    Revenue Per Available Room.  A performance measurement commonly used in the hotel industry.  It is calculated by dividing a hotel's net rooms revenue by the total number of available rooms, or by multiplying a hotel's aerage daily room rate by its occupancy.
  561. Rider
    Additional clause in a contract stipulating special requirements.
  562. Rigger
    1) Person responsible for machinery uncrating, unskidding, positioning, leveling, and reskidding. 2) Skilled labor responsible for attaching signs, banners, truss, and other equipment to ceilings.
  563. Rigging
    1) The process of attaching the cable on a crane to a piece of machinery or equipment. 2) The process for hanging materials or signs. 3) The structure to which hanging materials are attached.
  564. Right of First Refusal
    A courtesy a facility extends to a previously booked party to approve or disapprove a concurrent booking or to save uncontracted space for the previously booked party for program growth.
  565. Right to Work State
    Where joining a union is not a condition of employment.
  566. Rights Only
    Selling only the rights to a sponsorship, with the buyer incurring expenses for production, installation and dismantle.
  567. Riser
    Raised platform.
  568. Risk Management
    Recognizing the possibility of injury, damage or loss, and having a means to prevent it or provide insurance.
  569. Risk Monies
    Funds that an agency would not recoup should a tour not materialize, ie, nonrefundable deposits to suppliers, promotional expenditures, printing expenses.
  570. ROO
    Return on Objectives. Measurement of the benefit received for participating at an event based on pre-set objectives for success.
  571. Room Occupancy Pattern
    Number of single, double, triple, etc. rooms used.
  572. Room-based Videoconferencing
    Land-based system for videoconferencing designed to manage communication between one group of people, usually in a conference room setting, with another group or groups in similar settings elsewhere.
  573. Rooming List
    A list, whether printed or electronic, by which an event organizer and/or their designates (eg, a housing bureau) delivers multiple reservations to a hotel or other housing facility.  Often the information contained in a rooming list is originally gathered through attendees completed Housing Forms
  574. Rostrum
    Raised platform where a speaker stands when delivering his or her remarks.  AKA podium.
  575. Round Robin
    Contest or tournament in which each participant is matched with every other participant.
  576. Rounded Hollow Square
    A hollow square with corners replaced by serpentine or quarter round table.
  577. Roundtable
    A group of experts who meet on an equal basis to review and discuss specialized, professional matters, either in closed session or, more frequently, before an audience.
  578. Route Manager
    The person responsible for managing motor coach flow, routes, drivers, etc.
  579. Row Booth/Stand
    The booth/stand within a row of similar booths/stands with the front opening onto an aisle and with other booths/stands on either side.
  580. RTI
    Room, Tax and Incidentals.  An abbreviation often used in reference to charges at a hotel, motel, inn, bed and breakfast, etc.
  581. Runner
    1) Long narrow carpet in a hallway, aisle, or on stage. 2) Piece of portable or constructed staging that extends an main stage to form a runway. 3) Main cord extending from a microphone to an amplifier.
  582. Run-of-the-House
    1) Rooms given at random according to availability when the reservations are made. 2) Flat rate for which a hotel or motel agrees to offer any of its available rooms (with the exception of suites) to a group. Final assignment of rooms is at the discretion of the hotel.
  583. Run-Through
    A complete rehearsal including all elements of the event production, such as presentations, performances, music or entertainment, lighting, audio-visual and technical aspects.
  584. Russian Service
    1) Banquet Russian: The food is fully prepared in the kitchen.  All courses are served either from platters or an Escoffier dish.  Tureens are used for soup and special bowls for salad.  The server places the proper plate in front of the guest.  After the plates are placed, the server returns with a tray of food and, moving counter-clockwise around the table, serves the food from the guest's left with the right hand.  With this style of service, the server controls the amount served to each guest.
  585. Saddle-Stitch Binding
    Binding process using wire staples, thread, or wire.
  586. Scattered Arrivals
    A pattern of group arrivals that are separate from the main arrivals.
  587. Schoolroom Perpendicular Set-up
    Variation of schoolroom set-up in which tables are perpendicular to the head table, and chairs are placed on both sides of the tables.
  588. Scissor Lift
    A mobile work platform that extends vertically on a scissor-like mechanism with no increase in the size of the machine's footprint.
  589. Screen Left and Right
    Directions fiven from audience perspective.
  590. Screen/Audience Distance
    Distance between the projection screen and the front row of the audience.  Rear most audience member should be no more than 8 times the width of the screen in use.
  591. Scrim
    1) Translucent material used to diffuse or soften light. 2) Gauze-like theatrical curtains.
  592. Secure Digital Certificate
    An encrypted file that authenticates the source of financial data, usually for an online credit card transaction.
  593. Security Cage
    Portable wire enclosure used to lock up materials for safe storage.
  594. Security Contractor
    Company hired by exhibit or event management to keep individual exhibits and the entire event floor safe using guards, closed circut TV, etc.
  595. Security Service
    Service providing security arrangements, such as checking delegates credentials, searching hand luggage, protecting equipment and patrolling congress and exhibition areas.
  596. Segue
    Transition between two audio passages or video segments.
  597. Serpentine Queue
    Line formation of people going to the same area; line feeds off into several different service stations.
  598. Service Bar
    A counter from which alcoholic beverages are served that is located outside of a function room, usually in an area not visible to guests.
  599. Service Charge
    1) A mandatory and automatic amount added to food and beverage charges, usually used to defray the cost of labor and service equipment.  Generally calculated as a percentage of charges. 2) A fee charged to a client by a travel agent in addition to the commissions paid to him or her by his or her principals.
  600. Service Contractor
    Outside company used by clients to provide specific products or services (eg, pipe and drape, exhibitor manuals, floor plans, dance floors or flags).
  601. Service/Product Mix
    A business, while involving both service and produt, where the quality of the service is often more important than the product received. Example of this type of service would be service contractors, catering, etc.
  602. Set Light
    Light which illuminates background behind the performers.
  603. Shell Folder
    Brochure with preprinted illustrations to which varying text can be added.
  604. Shell Scheme
    European booth/stand system - usually includes raised floor, back and side walls, plus fascia.
  605. Shimmer Curtain
    Draping made of strips of colored material that catch and reflect the light.
  606. Shipper's Export Declaration
    A form required for all shipments by the US Treasury Department and prepared by a shipper, indicating the value, weight, destination, and other basic information about an export shipment.
  607. Shipping Agent
    Third-party hired to handle shipping goods to and from an event.
  608. Shipping Manifest
    An instrument in writing, signed by the captain of a ship that lists the individual shipments constituting the ship's cargo.
  609. Shirring the Drape
    Gathering drape along the rods to even out the folds and give each panel of drape equal spacing.
  610. Shop Steward
    Person designated by the union within a shop or unit to represent employees.
  611. Shore Excursion
    Land tours, usually available at ports of call, sold by cruise lines or tour operators to cruise passengers.
  612. Shoulder
    The beginning and ending days of a room block when fewer rooms are contracted.
  613. Show Daily
    A newspaper published each day during the run of an event or conference. It includes articles about the exhibits and events and, often, advertising.
  614. Show Directory
    A listing, with booth/stand numbers, of all the exhibitors in an event and a map showing booth/stand locations.
  615. Show Rates
    Rates established by event management, offical service contractors and/or other official service providers, and published in the exhibitor manual.
  616. Side Fills
    Speakers on stage right and stage left to project amplified sound to full stage area.
  617. Side Rail
    A low divider panel (usually 3 ft high) used to separate an exhibit space from an adjacent area.
  618. Sight Acts
    Performers who must be watched to be appreciated, such as mimes, jugglers, dancers, and acrobats.
  619. Sightlines
    The actual or virtual lines in the venue or on paper layout that describe what parts of a set or decorative object are visible from a given audience or guest point of view; used to determine what must be decoratively treated or masked (hidden).
  620. Signed Exception
    Delivery receipt, signed by the carrier, noting a damage or shortage.
  621. Simple Random Sample
    Method of sampling in which each member of the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample.
  622. Simulation
    Interactive instructional technique in which the learner has an opportunity to practice a new skill in a simulation, imitation or role-play of a real life situation.
  623. Simultaneous Interpretation
    Process of orally translating one language into another while the speaker is speaking.
  624. Simulataneous Translation
    Process of translating one language into another while the speaker is speaking.  Same as Simultaneous Interpretation.
  625. Six-by-Six Rule
    Audiovisual guidelines by which no transparency of slide should contain more than six words per line of text and no more than six lines of text.
  626. Skirting
    Pleated or ruffled draping used around buffet, reception, head tables, and risers or stages to conceal the area underneath.
  627. SLA
    Service Level Agreement. Usually an adjunct document to a vendor contract.
  628. Sling
    1) A premade length of cable used for hanging exhibit materials or signs. 2) A premade length of cable or a heavy-duty nylon strap used for rigging machinery to cranes or forklifts.
  629. Slippage
    Reduction in the number of rooms used from the original reserved block.
  630. Small Group Learning Patterns
    A learning activity that is dependent on the participation of a small group of people.
  631. Smart Form
    A web-based form that can be designed to guide the user through the process of completing the form and can alert the user to errors.
  632. Soffit
    A lowered portion of a ceiling.
  633. Soft Currency
    A currency that cannot be traded outside its native country.
  634. Sole Relay Interpreter
    Pivot Interpreter; only interpreter in the team assigned to an event who is able to translate out of a lesser used language and functions as a "relay" for the rest of the team in relation to that language.
  635. Sommelier
    A wine steward, expected to have an extensive knowledge of wines and their suitability with various dishes.
  636. SOP
    Standard Operating Procedure (or Practice).
  637. Sound Board
    Console with separate channels to control volume and sound quality produced by each microphone.
  638. Sound Mix
    Procedure of combining independently recorded narration, music and/or sound effect to single master tape or film, while at the same time establishing tone, volume and balance between elements.
  639. Sound Reinforcement
    Use of electronic and electric equipment to amplify the natural sound produced by a performer or speaker.
  640. Sound Wings
    Risers on stage right and stage left for stacked sound equipment which allows storage space hidden from the audience's view.
  641. Soundscape
    Atmosphere created with the use of music and sound effects.
  642. Source Language
    Language from which a speech or document is translated or interpreted.
  643. Space Assignment
    Booth/stand space assigned to exhibiting companies or meeting rooms assigned to event groups.
  644. Space Draw/Selection
    The process of assigning exhibit space for the next event based on the exhibitors' active involvement in the process.
  645. Space Rate
    Cost per square foot/meter for exhibit space.

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview