Bio I Midterm II

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Author:
dorsalthorns
ID:
182184
Filename:
Bio I Midterm II
Updated:
2012-11-06 23:00:28
Tags:
Mitosis Meiosis Spermatogenesis Oogenesis Embryology
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Description:
Mitosis/Meiosis/Spermatogenesis/Oogenesis/Embryology
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  1. Three Phases of Interphase
    • G1: Growth, Transcription, Translation
    • G2: DNA replication (x2 DNA)
  2. Phases of Cell Division (M Phase)
    • 1. Prophase
    • 2. Metaphase
    • 3. Anaphase
    • 4. Telophase
  3. Somatic Cells
    • Cells of the body except gametes
    • Diploid (2N)/ Two sets of chromosomes
  4. Prophase 2N
    • 4 visible chromosomes -> each have two sister chromatids
    • Nuclear enveloppe

    • "Spaghetti" Random positioning of chromosomes 
  5. Centromere
    Holds two sister chromatids
  6. Metaphase
    • Kinetochore plate anchors chromosome to mitotic spindle
    • Individual chromosomes align at metaphase plate (equator)

    • Line up in single file 
  7. Anaphase
    • Chromatids separate and move to opposite poles (now called chromosomes)
  8. Telophase
    • Cytokinesis: Division of Cytoplasm
    • Cleavage furrow
    • Nuclear enveloppe reforms
    • Two Identical daughter cells in interphase
  9. Telophase in Plants
    • Cytokenesis: Vesicles from the golgi fuse together at the metaphase plate (equator)
    • Formation of cell plate
  10. Meiosis in animals:
    Phases:
    formation of...
    2 Nuclear Divisions

    • 1. Prophase I
    • 2. Metaphase I
    • 3. Anaphase I
    • 4. Telophase I

    • 5. Prophase II
    • 6. Metaphase II
    • 7. Anaphase II
    • 8. Telophase II

    Gametes (sperm, egg)
  11. Meiosis: Prophase I
    • Synapsis: Joining of homologous chromosomes -> tetrads
    • Crossing over: Homologues exchange genes
  12. Meiosis: Metaphase I
    • Tetrads align at Metaphase plate
    • Independent assortment: members of pair align randomly
  13. Sources of genetic variation in Meiosis
    • 1. Crossing over: random exchange of genes when forming tetrads (prophase I)
    • 2. Independent assortment: members of a pair align randomly
  14. Meiosis: Anaphase I
    • Tetrads separate from eachother, move to opposite poles
  15. Meiosis: Telophase I
    • Cytokenesis
    • N = 2 chromosomes each with 2 chromatids
  16. Meiosis II is Similar to Mitosis
    Telophase II produces...
    4 different haploid cells
  17. Production of sperm cells occurs in 
    Testes -> seminiferous tubules
  18. Sperm production process
    Spermatogonium -> primary spermatocyte -> secondary spermatocyte -> sperm cell

  19. Haploid or Diploid?

    1. Spermatogonium
    2. Primary Spermatocyte
    3. Secondary Spermatocyte
    4. Sperm Cell
    • 1. Diploid 2N
    • 2. Diploid 2N
    • 3. Haploid N
    • 4. Haploid N
  20. Mitosis, Meiosis I or Meiosis II?

    1. Spermatogonium-> Primary Spermatocyte
    2. Secondary Spermatocyte-> Sperm Cell
    3. Primary Spermatocyte-> Secondary Spermatocyte
    • 1. Mitosis
    • 2. Meiosis II
    • 3. Meiosis I
  21. Characteristics of Spermatogenesis
    • Even cytokenesis: Equal division of cytoplasm
    • Numerous
    • Continuous production
  22. Production of an ovum occurs in
    Ovary
  23. Ovum production process:
    Primary oocyte -> Secondary Oocyte & First polar body (Meiosis I) -> continues if fertilized
  24. When do the following occur?

    1. Primary oocyte -> Secondary oocyte & 1st polar body (Meiosis II)
    2. Seconday oocyte -> ovulation (meiosis II)
    • 1. Before birth
    • 2. Puberty or later
  25. Characteristics of Oogenesis
    • Not continuous (interrupted developement)
    • -Woman stats oogenesis before birth
    • -"Egg supply" arrested in meiosis I as primary oocytes
    • -Secondary oocytes and 1st polar body have same amount of genetic info, but not same amount of cytoplasm
    • -At ovulation secondary oocyte is arrested in meiosis II
    • -Meiosis II never finished unless fertilized
  26. Embryology developement process
    Early cleavage -> Morula -> Blastula -> Gastrula
  27. Early Cleavage:
    Rapid cell divsion (mitosis) with no cellular growth
  28. Morula
    • Solid mass 
  29. Blastula
    Blastocoel cavity (blastocyst in humans)
  30. Gastrula 
    • Archenteron= primitive gut -> digestive tract
    • 3 germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
  31. Germ layers functions
    • Ectoderm: develops into brain, nervous system, skin
    • Mesoderm: muscle, bone, blood -> heart
    • Endoderm: Inside lining of organs

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