Anthropology Test 3

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  1. What where the BBC reports on A. Afarensis?
    Found in Etheopia in 2007.
  2. What were the evidence for evolution in the fossile records?
    Fossile record is indirect evidence for macro evolutionary change.
  3. What is a fossile?
    bio material that has been preserved. mostly when dead animal is quickly coverd by mud or sand. 1,000-forever. bone material is repaced with minerals
  4. Soft tissue preservation
    • rare times tissue can be presrved in: bogs, tundra and deserts. due to lack of oxygen and water.
    • example: bog people of denmark, mummies of egypt and mummies of greenland
  5. taphonomy
    what happens to body after death
  6. paleoenviroment
    enviroment that no longer exists
  7. taxonomy
    classification system by linneaus in the book system by linneaus based on degree animals are related
  8. analogous traits
    traits that function the same but are not the same. ( bird and bat wings)
  9. Cladistics
    evolutionary biology. uses primative and derived traits. all animals have unique characteristics
  10. adaptive ratdiation
    process of an organism to multiply in numbers and forms (explosion of mamals)
  11. cenozoic era
    • 1. paleocene 65-53 million years ago
    • 2. eocene 53-35 million years ago
    • 3. oilgocene 35-25 million years ago
    • 4. miocene 25-5 million years ago
    • 5. pliocene 5-1.8 million years ago
    • 6. pleisstocene 1.8-12,000 years ago
    • 7. hcvocene 12,000- present
  12. primative mamals
    3-1-4-3 dental formula. mouse size. lived in trees and bushes
  13. monotremes
    egg laying mamals
  14. echidnas
    only in austraila
  15. dental formula
    1/4th of mouth
  16. placental mammals
    during cenozoic they became the most widespread mammal. they have placentas
  17. epiteliochorial
    3 layers from mom 3 layers from featus. litter animals
  18. hemecarial
    ape and monkey. 3 layers from featus no layers from mom
  19. homeothermic
    body tempature control (some dinos may have had it)
  20. hetrodentism
    multiple forms of teeth
  21. reproductive efficency
    viviparty-live birth. babies need protine, learned bad and good theough play
  22. Clark's therory
    living in trees, 5 didgets, eyes in front, less smell, clavical, finger pads and nails
  23. Cartmill's therory
    visual predation hypotosis. binocular vision allows for judging distance. hand to mouth feeding
  24. eocene primates
    53-37 million years ago. strepersorie, 1st modern primates troop. rainforest coverd most of north america and europe. they were connected by greenlad untill 45 million years ago
  25. omomyids
    north america, europe and asia. look like modern tarsiers. known for teeth and jaw. necrolemurs suborder: tarsiformes 2-1-3-3. eats fruit and insects. have partial post orbital closure. unfused mandible. binocular vision
  26. oilgocene primate
    37-25 million years ago. suborder: haplorines. infraorder: platayrines and catarines
  27. aegyptopithecus
    lies near base of family tree of owm, ape and human. 13-18 lbs. 5y cusp. slow climber, quadropedail. 2-1-2-3
  28. miocence primates
    age of ape. 25-5 million years ago. super family: hominoidea are found in france, germany, spain, greece, hungry, india, turkey, s.arabia, egypt, kenya, china and asia. 30 genera and 100 species.thin enamal on molar. slender projecting caine. no tails monkey limbs
  29. Dryopithecines Pongidae
    14 million years ago. east africa. woodlands, bushes, fossile evidence from eurasia, india and china.
  30. Sivapithecus
    from pakistan. stout central incisors. deep thick mandibul. flaring zygomatic arch. large 1st molar, thick enamal
  31. Gigantopithecus
    6-9ft tall. 500-1000 lbs. largest teeth of ape
  32. primate
    evolutionary trends
    have to do with diet and living conditions, movement pattern
  33. info on limbs and locomotion
    5 didgets, nails no claws, prehensile hands and feet. erectness, sitting, walking, leaping, retention of clavical, flexable shoulders
  34. info
    on teeth and diet
    2-1-3-3, 2-1-2-3, 2-1-3-2. no special diet
  35. info
    on senses, brainand, behavior
    small snout, large emphisis of depth and color, longer gestation, single birth, long infancy and life span, dependancy on learnned behavior, flexable behaivor, male parents, group association
  36. Suborder
    strepsirhini and their characteristics
    claw on 2nd toe, long snout, incompleat vision, no back wall to eye socket, lacrimal bone is a part of the bone formation of snout, dental comb
  37. info
    on Lemurs (infraorder Lemuriformes) and Madagascar, Lemurcatta
    only in madagascar, low metabolic rate, males stink fight. madagascar has 26+ species of lemur. 14 extinct.
  38. info
    on Idri indri
    vertical climbing and leaping, full teeth before 1. small gropus
  39.  work of Pat Wright
    1972, created Ranomafana forest preserve.
  40. info
    on three different Hapelemurs
    • griseus- gray bamboo lemur
    • aureus- golden bamboo lemur discoverd 1987
    • simus- thought to be extinct
  41. Daubentonia
    (Aye aye)
    flat face, large eyes, long bushy tail, long fingers, 3rd finger very long, claws except big toe has nail
  42. Lorises
    • 2-1-3-3.
    • nocturnal, africa and asia
  43. Galago
    • galago- from africa, vertical clingers and leapers, eats bugs, adult
    • girls maintain teritory. group of related girls, boys have own teritory.
    • 2 foot bones, high metabolic rate
  44. slow
    slow climber, from borneo and south phillipines in south east asia. produce poision
  45. Tarsiers
    and suborder Tarsiiformes
    clinger and leaper. only in south east asia, elongated foot and ankle, 2-1-3-3. bio chem is simmilar to anthropids not so much lemurs
  46. general
    that help to distinguish Haplorhines and Strepsirhines
    • Haplorhine has:
    • larger body
    • rounder skull
    • steroscopic vision
    • back wall to eye
    • no rhinorium
    • fewer premolars
    • complex social system
    • parental care
    • 70% of all primates are haps
  47. 3
    families of platyrrhines (NWM)
    • from south america
    • all live in trees (aboriral)
    • callitrichs- 2-1-3-2 (marmoset)
    • ceboids- 2-1-3-3 (squril monkey)
    • atlids- 2-1-3-3 (howler monkey)
  48. info
    on different Callitrichs
    • marmosets- 20 cm in legth
    • tamarins- 3 babies, whole group cares for babies
    • cotton topped tamarins- when stressed can cause stomach cancer
  49. info
    on different Ceboids
    • capuchin- small, large groups, courious
    • squirrl monkey- smart, small, courious
  50. info
    on different Atelids
    • only monkey to hang by tail
    • s. america, central america
    • small group because of management and resource
    • howler monkey- can be heard for over 5 miles
  51. Catarhines
    (OWM) and
    the African and Asian examples
    • haplorhini
    • africa-colobus monkey
    • asia-probosics monkey
  52. info
    on Papio
    hemadryus baboon
  53. info
    on Erythrocebus (patas monkey)
    from africa
  54. info
    on Red colobus monkey
    eaten by chimps, they mob baby chimps
  55. info
    on Presbytes
    color changes as they get older
  56. taxonomic
    ranking of apes
    • catarrhini
    • hominiodea
    • hylopates
    • pongidae
    • pongo pymaeus abelii
    • homindidae
    • gorillinae
    • gorilla gorilla
  57. information
    on orangutans (Pongo) and Birute Galdikas
    louis leaky ladies, they are humansnearest relitive
  58. bonobos
    (Pan paniscus)
    very smart, kanzi
  59. Jane Goodall
    1st leaky lady, apes, learned by doing
  60. gorillas
    and Diane Fossey
    2nd leaky lady, didget was favorite gorilla, murderd
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Anthropology Test 3
2012-11-07 22:49:48

Anthropology Test 3
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