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2012-11-06 23:16:03
Chapter 10 Toddler Preschool Nutrition

Nutrition through the life cycle 4th ed.
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  1. growth velocity
    the rate of growth over time
  2. toddlers
    children between the ages of 1-3 years
  3. gross motor skills
    development and use of large muscle groups as exhibited by walking alone, running, walking up stairs, riding a bike, hopping, and skipping
  4. fine motor skills
    development and use of smaller muscle groups demonstrated by stacking objects, scribbling and copying a circle or square
  5. preschool age children
    children between ages 3-5 years who are not yet attending kindergarten
  6. recumbent length
    measurement of length while the child is lying down. Recumbent length is used to measure toddlers <24 months of age and those between 24 and 36 months who are unable to stand unassisted
  7. stature
    standing height
  8. body mass index
    an index that correlates with total body fat content or percent body fat and is an acceptable measure of adiposity or body fatness in children and adults. it is calculated by dividing weight in kilograms by the square of height in meters (kg/m²)
  9. preloads
    beverages or food such as yogurt in which the energy/macronutrient content has been varied by the use of various carbohydrate and fat sources. The preload is given before a meal or snack and subsequent intake is monitored.
  10. dietary reference intake (DRIs)
    quantitative estimates of nutrient intakes, used as reference values for assissing the diets of healthy people.
  11. recommended dietary allowances (RDAs)
    the average daily dietary intake levels sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97-98%) healthy individuals in a population group. RDAs serve as goals for individuals
  12. anemia
    a reduction below normal in the number of red blood cells per cubic mm in the quantity of hemoglobin or in the volume of packed red cells per 100 mL of blood. This reduction occurs when the balance between blood loss and blood production is disturbed
  13. hemoglobin
    a protein that is the oxygen-carrying component of red blood cells. A decrease in hemoglobin concentration in red blood cells is a late indicator of iron deficiency
  14. hematocrit
    an indicator of the proportion of whole blood occupied by red blood cells. A decrease in hematocrit is a late indicator of iron deficiency
  15. early childhood caries (ECC)
    the presence of one or more decayed (noncavitated or cavitated lesions), missing (due to caries), or filled tooth surfaces in any primary tooth in a child 71 months of age or younger
  16. Fluorosis
    permanent white or brownish staining of the enamel of teeth caused by exessive ingestion of fluoride before teeth have erupted
  17. food security
    access at all times to a sufficient supply of safe, nutritious foods
  18. hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)
    a serious somethimes fatal complication associated with illness caused by e. coli 0157:H7, which occurs primarily in children under the age of 10 years. HUS is characterized by renal failure, hemolytic anemia, and a severe decrease in platelet count
  19. overweight
    body mass index-for-age between the 85th and 94th percentiles
  20. obesity
    BMI-for-age greater than or equal to the 95th percentile
  21. adiposity or BMI rebound
    a normal increase in body mass index that occurs after BMI declines and reaches its lowest point at 4-6 years of age
  22. heart disease
    the leading cause of death and a common cause of illness and diability in the US. Coronary heart disease is the principal form of heart disease and is caused by buildup of cholesterol deposits in the coronary arteries, which feed the heart
  23. LDL cholesterol
    low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the lipid most associated with atheroscleotic disease. Diets high in saturated fat, trans fatty acids, and dietary cholesterol have been shoen to increase LDL-cholesterol levels
  24. familial hyperlipidemia
    a condition that runs in families and results in high levels of serum cholesterol and other lipids
  25. trans fatty acids
    fatty acids that have unusual shapes resulting from the hydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Trans fatty acids also occur naturally in small amounts in foods such as dairy products and beef
  26. atherosclerosis
    a type of hardening of the arteries in which cholesterol is deposited in the arteries. These deposits narrow the coronary arteries and may reduce the flow of blood to the heart
  27. tolerable upper intake levels
    highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population; gives levels of intake that may result in adverse effects if exceeded on a regular basis
  28. vegan diet
    the most restrictive of vegetarian diets, allowing only plant foods
  29. macrobiotic diet
    this diet falls between semivegetarian and vegan diets and includes foods such as brown rice, other grains, vegetables, fish, dried beans, spices, and fruits
  30. meal preparation activities for young children
    let children select and help prepare a whole-grain side dishlet children help shop for, clean, peel, or cute up vegetables and fruits, depending on the agelet children decide on the dinner vegetable or what goes into salads
  31. DRI for protein
    • ages 1-3 = 1.1 g/kg(weight)/day or 13 g/day
    • ages 4-8 = 0.95 g/kg(weight)/day or 19 g/day
  32. DRI for iron for toddlers and preschoolers
    • ages 1-3 = 7 mg/day
    • ages 4-8 = 10 mg/day
  33. DRI for zinc for toddlers and preschoolers
    • ages 1-3 = 3 mg/day
    • ages 4-8 = 5 mg/day
  34. DRI for calcium for toddlers and preschoolers
    • ages 1-3 = 500 mg/day
    • ages 4-8 = 800 mg/day
  35. progression of iron deficiency
    increase iron requirements or inadequate iron absorption or inadequate iron intake --> decrease iron stores --> iron deficiency --> iron depletion --> iron-deficiency anemia symptoms
  36. adequate intake of total fiber for children
    • ages 1-3 = 19g/day of total fiber
    • ages 4-8 = 25g/day of total fiber
  37. mean percentages of total calories from carbohydrates
    • ages 2-5:
    • males: 55.9%
    • female: 56.0%
  38. mean percentages of total calories from protein
    • ages 2-5:
    • males: 13.9%
    • females: 14.3%
  39. mean percentages of total calories from total fat
    • ages 2-5:
    • males: 31.4%
    • females: 31.1%
  40. mean of total calories from cholesterol
    • ages 2-5:
    • males: 174 mg/day
    • femals: 164 mg/day