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The key to time management
- First know yourself - Analyze time
- Working you plan - Be flexible
- Overcoming Procrastination - slit a project to manageable pieces
- Organization - Plan
What is the first part of the tutoring cycle?
Tutot and tutee greet and establish a positive climate.
What is the second part of the tutoring cycle?
Tutee indentifies task.
What is the third part of the tutoring cycle?
Tutor breaks the task into smaller parts.
What is the fourt part of the tutoring cycle?
Tutor identifies thoughts processes/skills underlying the task(s).
What is the fifth part of the tutoring cycle?
Tutee sets an agenda for the session for addressing task(s).
What is the sixth part of the tutoring cycle?
Tutor addresses the task.
What is the seventh part of the tutoring cycle?
Tutee demonstrates and summarizes content.
What is the eight part of the tutoring cycle?
Tutee demonstrates and summarizes underlying processes.
What is the ninth part of the tutoring cycle?
Tutor responds with feedback.
What is the tenth part of the tutoring cycle?
Tutor asks "What next?"
What is the eleventh part of the tutoring cycle?
Tutor and Tutee confirm and paln next session.
What is the twelfth part of the tutoring cycle?
Defenition of Learning Styles
- Cognitive (mental)
- Affective (emotional/sociological)
- Physiological (sensory).
What are the five learning styles?
- Multimodel (all learning styles)
- Aural (auditory)
- Kinesthetic (tactile, do something with it)
Concrete Experience (Type 1)
- Learing strengths: Learing by intuition, learing from specific experiences, relating to people, sensitivity to people, and sensitivity to feelings.
- Preferred learning situations: Learning from new experiences, games, role plays, and so on. Personalized counseling, teacher as coach/helper, peer feedback, and discussion.
Abstract Conceptualism (Type 2)
- Learning strengths: Learning by thinking, logical analysis of ideas, systematic planning, and deductive thinking - acting on the basis of one's understanding of a situation.
- Preferred learning situations: Theory readings, study time alone, teachers as communicator of information, and clear, well-structured presentation of ideas.
Reflective Observation (Type 3)
- Learning strenghts: Lerning by perception, careful observation before making judgments, viewwing things from different perspectives, and introversion - looking inward for the meaning.
- Prefferred learning situations: Lectures, objective tests of one's knowledge of an issue, teacher as guide/task master, and opportunities to take an obeserver role, to see different perspectives on an issue.
Active Experimentation (Type 4)
- Learning strengths: Learning by doing, ability to get things done, risk taking, and extroversion - acting to influence people and events.
- Preferred learning situations: Opportunities to practice and recieve feedback, small group discussions,teacher as a rolde model on how to do it, and projects and individualized, self-paced, learning activites.
Type one "Imaginative Learners"
- Seek meaning.
- Need to be involved personally.
- Learn by listening and sharing ideas.
- Absorb reality.
- Perceive information conceretely and process ir reflectively
- Interested in people and culture. They are divergent thinkers who believe in their own experience, excel in viewing concrete situations from many perspectives, and model themselves on those they respect.
- Function through social interaction.
- Strength: Innovation and imagination.
- They are idea people.
- Goals: Self-involvement in imporatant issues, bringing unity to diversity.
- Favorite question: "Why or Why not?"
Type Two "Analytic Learners"
- Seeks facts.
- Need to know what te experts think.
- Learn by thinking through ideas. They form reality.
- Perceive information abstractly and process reflectively.
- Less interest in people than ideas and concepts; they critique information and date collectors. Thorough and industrious, they will re-examine facts if situations perplex them. They enjoy traditional classrooms.
- Schools are designed for these learners.
- Function by adapting to experts.
- Strength: Creating concepts and models.
- Favorite question: "What?"
- Goals: Self satisfaction and intellectual recognition.
Type Three "Common Sense Learners"
- Seek usability.
- Need to know how things work.
- Learn by testing theories in ways that seen sensible.
- They edit reality.
- Perceive information abstractly and process it actively.
- Use factual datat to build designed concepts. They need hands-on experiences, enjoy solving problems, resent being given answeres, restrict judgment to concrete things, have limited toleranfe for "fuzzy" ideas. They need to know how things they are asked to do will help in "real life".
- Fuction through inferences drawn from sensory experience.
- Strength: practical application of ideas.
- Goal: To bring their views of the present into line with future security.
- Favorite question: "How does this work?"
Type Four "Dynamic Learners"
- Seek hidden possibilities.
- Need to know what can be done with things.
- Learn by trial and error, self discovery.
- Enrich reality.
- Perceive information concretely and process it actively.
- Adaptable to change and relish it, like variety and excel in situations calling for flexibility. Tend to take risks, at ease with people but sometimes seen as pushy. Often reach accurate conclusions in the absence of logical justifiacation.
- Function by acting and testing experience.
- Strength: Action, carrying out plans.
- Favorite questions: "What can this become?"
- Goals: To make things happen, to bring action to concept.
Guidelines for tutoring ESL Students
- 1. Help the student learn by asking questions and giving them strategies fros solving langage problems.
- 2. Don't give students the answers or do thier work for them.
- 3. Be prepared.
- 4. Admit when you don't know.
- 5. Speak clearly.
- 6. Speak in English.
- 7.Find out if the student understands often!
- 8. When correcdting student writing, do not correct every single mistake.
- 9. Give examples.
- 10. Wait! (Ask them to write answers)
- 11. Give feedback.
- 12. Keep it student-centered.
- 13. Be a good listener.
- 14. Be aware of individual difference.
- 15. Have fun!
- III. Correcting Students Essays
- 1. Focus on Organization and Major ideas First.
- A. Read the entire paper.
- B. Organizational structure.
- C. Content.
- D. Grammatical problems.
What's the difference between listening and hearing?
- Listening is with your mind.
- Hearing is with yu ears.
What's reflective listening?
Summarizing what the speaker said.
What's active listening?
Leaves the responsibility for what has been said with the speaker. The speaker can solve his or her own problems.
- Chapter title in Table of Contents
- Headings (size, shape, color, placement)
- Introduction (paraphrase the main idea)
- Pattern of organization (chrnological? problem/solution? cause/effect?)
- Summary (paraphrase the main idea)
- Objective (To which heading does this relate?)
- Enrichment (To which heading does this relate?)
- Review/study questions
What does SQ3R stand for?
- Question (Turn the first heading into a quesiton)
Cognitive Deficit: Long Term Retrieval
- Limitations: Gets general info, not details, Retroactive inhibition, Poor associative skills, Sequencing difficulties, poor spelling, and Reading comprehension trouble.
- Strategies and Accommodations: Flashcards/Note cards, Tutroing/study groups, Short frequent repetiions, Learn to make associations, Several drafts of essays, and "Brain Dump on tests.
Cognitive Deficit: Short Term Memory
- Limitations: Poor note taking skills, forgets ideas while writing, affects comprehension, Tip of the tongue syndrome, Needs visual cues, and Poor working memmory.
- Strategies and Accommodations: Tape recorder in class, Tape recorder for essays, Re-read texts, Dragon dictate to dump ideas, Brainstrom or make story boards, and Colors (underline unknown ideas).
Cognitive Defict: Processing Speed
- Limitations: Slow reading/word recognition, Poor spelling (phonetic pattern), Weak proofreading, Slow test taking, Reversals omission, Illegible handwriting, and Loses place while reading.
- Strategies and Accommodations: Extra time on test, Spell checker/word processor, E-text (visual + auditory), Scantron techniques, Word prediction software with auditory feedback, and Read summary first.
Cognitive Defict: Auditory Prcessing
- Limitations: Difficulties with accents, Trouble with phonics, Poor spelling (visual pattern), Malaprops, Takes few notes from lecture, and Misses the "beauty of language.
- Strategies and Accommodations: Visual supplements, Read text before lectures, Note cards, Spell checker/word processor, Note taker, and Practice active listening skills.
Cognitive Deficit: Visual-Spatial Thinking
- Trouble with visualizing, Can't picture relationships among characters or ideas, poor handwriting,poor spelling (ommissions), and Trouble with outlining.
- Strategies and Accommodations: Study groups to berbalize, Verbal study methods, Spell checker/Word processor, Point out visual connections, Use "blueprint" for outlining, and Tape recorder.
Cognitive Deficit: Comprehension and Knowledge
- Limitations: Weak vocabulary, weak reading comprehension, Limited word choices, Difficulty with lectures, May signal memory deficits, and May relate to lack of education.
- Strategies and accommodations: vocabulary notebook, Thesaurus, Multiple drafts of essay, read more, E-text (visual + auditory), and Electronic speaking speller.
Cognitive Deficit: Fluid Reasoning
- Limitations: Trouble with math, difficulty with plot inferences, Limited cognitive flexibility, prefers literal/concrete tasks, Weak argument development, and Doesn't understand subtle cues.
- Strategies and Accommodations: Tutoring/Study groups, Ask question, Use multiple input methods, Color code withing Categories, Take fewer units per semester, and Seek feedback regarding essays.
In order to perform optimally as a college student (as well as in life generally), individual must?
- Have adequate self-esteem
- Be organized
- Have motivating (moderate, not overwhelming) levels of anxiety
- Be proactive and not avoidant
- Be assertive and not passive
- Be unjammed by frustration
- Maintain motivation or gumption
- Negative self-concept, especially as a student (feeling stupid)
- Not accepting responsibility for one's education
- Feelings of inferiority and rejection
- Depression, fearfulness, helplessness, frustration
- Expecting failure, seeing success as te exception that proves the rule
- Over-sensitivity to critism
- Usually low self-esteem is defended against by such reactions as bravado, superiority, indefference or hostility.
The student may be unable to structure or order work, time or surroundings. When the student can't lacate important papers, or misses appointments, it may appear he/she is simply sloppy or indifferent.
Anxiety is a feeling of painful or apprehensive uneasiness closely related to fear. It is especially characterized by dread or anticipation of some unclear threat. Previous academic failures can create high levels of anxiety in students, especially in regard to test taking.
The student may procrastinate or avoid doing work altogether, in order to circumvent failure or reduce anxiety. This may be seen laziness or irresponsibility.
Like a bunny laying low to see what develope, the passive student avooids making mistakes by waiting for others to make the first move. This "learned helplessness" is reinforced whenever a well-meaning rescuer prempts the student. Passivity is of then linked to low self-esteem and not talking responsibility for one's own life, much less one's education.
Frustration is a negative emotional state resulting primarily from obstacles or blocks to goal attainment. Frustrations can be internal (resulting from the individual's own characteristics), or external (resulting from coditions outside the persons). LD students are often frustrated by their learning disabilities and by a system which seems designed to ensure their failure. Anger and resistance are often masks for frustration.
Loss of Gumption
Gumption can be thought of as a combination of motivation, initiative, and enterprise, which are obviously necessary for a student to succeed in college. Feelings of failuure and negative emotions like those listed above can sap a student's reserve of vital gumption. The student may then give up, or appear to give up (hopefully temporarily to fall back and regroup.) At such times, the student may be seen (by himself/herself and others) as unmotivated or a quitter.
Learning Disabilities and California Community Colleges
- Under Title V of the California Code of Regulations, to meet the Learning Disabilities Eligibility Model for Disabled Student Programs and Services, a student must exhibit all of the following:
- 1. Average to above average achievement (81/85+ standard score) in an instructional or employment setting;
- 2. Average to above average intellectual ability (85+);
- 3. Severe processing deficit(s) (-1.0+ standard deviation); and
- 4. Severe aptitude vs. ahievement discrepancy(ies) (-1.3+ SD)
Six Principles for Building a Strong Memory
- 1. Increase your interest. ou will remember tose things that interest you naturally. And you can CREATE greater interest in what you read by such devices as looking for answers to questions you have tought up, discussing your reading assignments with other students, and imagining that you are conversing with the author. Marking key ideas with a pencil also helps you to remember them.
- 2. Separate the most important from the lesser details. Notice the highlights. Overloading the memory with too many details slows learning down, so know what to overlook. Establish a general principle as the magnetic center around whic to cluster the supporting details, be cause a unit is easier to remember than many unrelated details.
- 3. Plan to remember. Tell yourself this is important. If you really plan to remember, you will listen with attention, strive to understand, and try to get it right the first time; all hese will strengthen the tracing upon the memory cells in the brain.
- 4. Use meaningful organization. Nonsense is harder to remember than meaningful material. First gater the facts and ideas, then try to cluster them into categories. Example: a random list of 9 grocery items becomes easier to remember if you group it into categories such as "meat, vegetables, and dairy." The moemory span of an adult seems fixed at seve chunks of information, but you can add bits of information to the larger chunks, like metal filings clinging to magnetic centers. If new information can be associated with what you already know, it is easier to remember. Example: the root word duct = deduct, conduct, induction, aqueduct, etc.
- 5. Recite what you have learned. This is the best device known for transferring material from the short-term to the long-term memory. Cover what you wish to remember and say it aloud. If you can say it, then you know it. Recitation deepens the memory trace because your min must hink actively about the new material. Moreover, the physical act of pronouncng and hearing your words involves more of your senses, making stronger traces on the nerves in your brain.
- 6. Consolidate learning by reviewing. The neural traces in the mind need about 5 seconds to 15 minutes to jell or consolidate into a permanent memory. Thus, reviewing your notes immediately after class helps the new information to settle down in the mind. Thinking about new ideas while walking to te next class also helps to consolidate them.
Dale's Cone of Experience
- People Generally Remember: 10% of what they Read, 20% of what they Hear, 30% of what they See (View Images, Watch Video), 50% of what they hear and see (Attend Exibit/Sites, Watch a Demonstration, 70%of what they say and write (Participate in Hands-On Workshop, Design Collaborative Lessons), 90% of what they do (Simulate or Model a Real EXperience, Design/Perform a Presentation - Do the Real Thing).
- People are able to (Learning Outcomes): Read and Hear, Define List and Describe Explain. View Images/Watch video, Attend Exbit/sites/Watch a demonstration Demonstrate Apply practice. Participate in Hands-On Workshop/Design Collaborative Lessons, Simulate or Model a Real Experience/Design/perform a Presentation - Do the Real Thing Analyze Design Create Evaluate.
The emhasis is to point out the similarities of the qualities or characteristics. Mention the differences only in cases where it may help to point out the similarities. Discuss similarities & differences.
The dissimilarities of things, qualities, events or problems is emphasized. Discuss differences.
This is a cue for you to express your persopnal feelings about the factors or views mentioned. You should be able to back up any statment that you make.
You are being asked for a definition therefore be concise, clear, and use authoritiative meanings. It is not necessary to give details, in some casesyou maygive a definition by telling what it is not. Give the meaning.
Answer the question either in story form, characterize, sketch it or itemize the points. Write as much as you can. Write about the subject os it can be visualized.
This usually means that the instructor wants a drawing descrbing the question. Besure to label the parts and explain areas which are not clear. Draw a picture and label its pants.
A discussion requires a complete answer. Reinforce your answer by giving the pros and cons by examining all aspects. Write as much as you can.
List or make an outline of all the points in a concise form. Give as many details as you can.
Appraise the problems, listing both advantages and disadvantages. Quote authorities wit less emphasis on your personal evaluation.
Try to analyze the causes of the problem and give your interpretation or opinionof the resuts. Write as much as you can. Discuss reasons.
The instructor wants proof positive that the situation is so. Do this by taking pains to write your answer convincingly. Discuss good and bad points and conclude it is good.
Use the simple outline procedure of main and subordinate points. Stress the arrangement or classification of things.
Try to establish that something is true by pointing out factual evidence and giving clear logical reasons for your argument.
Tie the problem together by sowing how things are related or ow one causes anoter. They may be liike one another. Discuss the connection between (or among) things/ideas.
Wrap it up. This is like a chapter summary, which gives all the main points omitting details in a condensed form. Briefly state.
Take the subject from some point or origin and tell it like it is in narrative form. Show the progress, development or historical events from then to now or vice versa. Discuss in a logical or chronological sequence.
- Using MEMORY in the recall or recognition of previously presented information.
- Verbs: define, describe, identify, label, list, match, memorize, point to, recall select, state.
- Demonstrating CONCEPT UNDERSTANDING by translating, interpreting or extrpolating the meang of what was presented.
- Verb: alter, account for, annotate, calcualte, change, convert, group, explain, generalize, give examples, infer, interpret, paraphrase, predict, review, summarize, translate.
- Choosing and using previously learned general ideas, rules and theories in SOLVING A SPECIFIC PROBLEM.
- Verbs: apply, adopt, collect, constrct, demonstrate, discover, illustrate, interview, make use of, manipulate, relate, show, solve, use.
- Breaking a while down to its component parts and determining the RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PARTS.
- Verbs: analyze, compare, contrast, diagram, differentiate, dissect, distinguish, identify, illustrate, infer, outline, point out, select, separate, sort, subdivide.
- Putting together parts and elements to FORM A NEW OR WHOLE PATTERN; already learned concepts, principles, or ideas are used to CREATE A NEW PRODUCT.
- Verb: blend, build, change, combine, compile, compose, conceive, create,design, formulate, gerate, hypothesize, plan, predict, produce, oreorder, revise, tell, write.
- Making JUDGMENTS based on specific criteria rather than on opinions, and stating the basis for the judgment.
- Verb: accept, appraise, assess, arbitrate, award, coose, conclude, criticize, defend, evaluate, grade, judge, prioritize, recommened, referee, reject, select, support.
Raising the Cognitive Level of Students
- Data Recall or Date Gathering
- Data Processing Level: Question on the level of data processing are designed to cause students to see relationships among the data they have reacalled or gathered. These relationships include manipulation, arranging, organizing, comparing, contrasting, and perceiving, causation, among the data they have acquired. The following list gives some cognitive bhaviors at hte processing level and some sample questions designed to elicit tose behaviors.
- Application Level: Questions on the levle ofapplication are designed to build upon he earlier two levels, by going beyond the concepts or principles that were devleoped at processing level and using them in new, imaginary, or ypothetical situations. At this level students hwould be stimulated to think creatively, use their imaginations, express preferences, and devlop a value system.
- Prepare to Pass
- Inspect the instructions
- Read, Remember, Reduce
- Answer or Abandon
- Turn Back to the abandoned items
- Put your name & PIRATES on the test
- Allot time & order to the sections
- Say affirmations
- Start withing 2 minutes
- Read the instructions
- Underline what to do &circle where to do it
- Note special requirements
Read, Remember, Reduce (RRR)
- Read the whole question
- Remember what you have studied
- Reduce the choices
Answer or Abandon (AAP)
- Answer the questions that are known
- Abandon unknown questions for the momen
- Put a mark(?,*, etc.) next to andoned questions
- Avoid absolutes
- Choose the longest or most detailed answer choice
- Eliminate similar choices
Discuss good and bad points and conclude if it is more good or bad.
Draw a picture and label its parts. Give a long, written example.
Make a numbered list.
Make a numbreed or well-organized list.
Bloom's Taxonomy of thinking skills (cognitive)
- Higher level: Evaluation (Judgment), Synthesis (Somthing new), Analysis, Application (Apply it).
- Lower level: Comprehension (Understanding), Knowledge (Memory).