biology chapter 11

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biology chapter 11
2012-11-07 02:17:21

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  1. components of any system
    inputs --> production and/or processing --> outputs
  2. autotrophs
    living things that are able to produce their own food through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis
  3. producers
    an autroph that supplies all the organic matter on which other organisms in an ecosystem depend
  4. chemotrophs
    converters that use simple inorganic chemical compunds of iron and sulphur as their source of energy and matter
  5. photosynthesis
    • the chemical reaction using energy from the sun to make food
    • carbon dioxide + water = oxygen + glucose
    • 6CO2 + 6H20 = 6O2 + C6H12O2
  6. biomass
    the total amount of matter (mass) of living material in an ecosystem at a particular time
  7. generalised food chain
    sunlight - producer - primary consumer - secondary consumer - tertiary consumer - top carnivore
  8. food chain in the ocean
    tiny photosynthetic organisms - very small herbovires - small fish - fish eaters
  9. herbivores
    feed directly on producers, eg./wombat, kangaroo, sheep
  10. carnivores
    feed on primary consumers, eg./native cats, dingo, kookaburra
  11. top consumers
    feed on secondary consumers, eg./eagle, shark
  12. omnivores
    feed on both plants and animals, eg./foxes, humans
  13. scavengers
    feed on dead organisms, eg./foxes
  14. detritivores
    feed on dead or decaying organic remains and wastes, eg./dung beetles, earthworms, yabbies
  15. decomposers
    break down complex molecules of the organic material in or on which they live, eg./fungi, some bacteria
  16. detritus
    organic wastes, including faeces and dead tissues
  17. cellular respiration
    • a series of chemical reactions using glucose and oxygen to build ATP molecules
    • glucose + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water + energy
    • C6H12O2 + 6O2 = 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy
  18. reasons for energy generation
    • synthesis
    • growth and repair
    • temperature maintenance
    • chemical work
    • mechanical work
  19. trophic efficiency
    relates to the percentage of the energy at one trophic level that ends up in the next trophic level
  20. zooplankton
    the collective term for the tiny heterotrophic organisms present in bodies of water
  21. phytoplankton
    the collective term for the tiny photosynthetic organisms present in bodies of water
  22. food chain
    illustrates how energy is passed from one organism to another in an ecosystem
  23. food web
    interconnecting food chains in an ecosystem
  24. pyramid of numbers
    a diagram that shows the number of individual organisms at each trophic level in a given area of an ecosystem
  25. pyramid of biomass
    a representation that shows the relationship between the total amount of dry organic material at each trophic level in a given area of an ecosystem
  26. pyramid of energy
    a representation that shows the transfer of energy from one level to another through a community
  27. biogeochemical cycle
    the cycling of matter through the living component of an ecosystem - soils and rocks, water and the atmosphere
  28. humus
    dark brown organic matter in soil, derived from decomposed plant and animal remains (detritus)
  29. anaerobic
    • without oxygen
    • this is how fossil fuels are formed
  30. sink
    a reservoir of material or energy
  31. source
    a place of origin of material or energy
  32. nitrogen fixation
    • the process by which free nitrogen is 'fixed' or combined to form ammonium (NH4) or nitrate (NO3) ions before living things can make use of it for growth
    • all nitrogen-fixing organisms are prokaryotes (bacteria)
  33. nitrifying bacteria
    convert the ammonia released in urine and from the decay of faeces, dead plants and animals to nitrites (NO2-)
  34. dentrifiers
    turn the nitrates in the soil into nitrites in the process of obtaining oxygen
  35. water cycle
    • the continuous exchange of water between living things ans their non-living surroundings
    • also known as the hydrological cycle
    • driven by solar energy and gravity
  36. precipitation
    falling of rain, snow, sleet or hail - gravity
  37. infiltration
    soaking of water into the soil - gravity
  38. percolation
    flow of water from soil to deeper water-bearing sedimentary layers (aquifers) - gravity
  39. run-off
    flow of water from the surface of the landscape into rivers, lakes and oceans - gravity
  40. evaporation
    change of state from liquid to vapour - solar energy
  41. transpiration
    loss of water from the surface of vegetation to the atmosphere - solar energy
  42. condensation
    change of state from vapour to liquid by cooling - release of energy to the atmosphere
  43. bioaccumulation or biological magnification
    the accumulation of non-biodegradable matter in the tissues of one organism, passed along from the previous one in the food chain
  44. non-biodegradable
    unable to be broken down by the activity of decomposers