Rad Bio 11/09 Test

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Anonymous
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182223
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Rad Bio 11/09 Test
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2012-11-07 03:42:52
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radiation biology therapy rad science
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Rad Bio 11/09 Test
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  1. What are two groups of sources in a radiation therapy department?
    External Beam  (ie linear accerator, cobalt therapy unit)

    Brachytherapy  (ie cesium 137, iridium 192, iodine 125)
  2. Radiation with sufficient energy to separate an electron from its atom:
    Ionizing Radiation
  3. What do alpha particles consist of?
    2 protons and 2 neutrons (a helium nuclei)

      Charge: +2    Atomic Mass: 4
  4. What are alpha particles emitted from?
    • Unstable heavy nuclei
    • ie. radon, radium
  5. Alpha particles:
    High or Low LET?
    • Alpha particles are High LET
    • Can only travel short distances & can be stopped by a sheet of paper.
  6. Alpha particles are hazardous if:
    Ingested or Inhaled
  7. Can alpha particles be used for external beam therapy?
    No
  8. Beta Particles:
    Charge?
    Atomic Mass?
    • Beta Particles:
    •                               Charge                Atomic Mass
    • Negatron (B-)           -1                             0
    • Positron (B+)             +1                           0
  9. What is the origin of beta particles?
    • Beta particles are electrons emitted by the nucleus.
    • Can carry one unit of negative charge  Negatron (B-) 
    •   or
    • carry one unit of positive charge  Positron (B+)
  10. Whenever beta particles are emitted, they are accompanied by a small, massless, chargeless particle known as a:
    Neutrino
  11. ___________ are not stable and can only exist for short periods of time
    Positrons  are not stable and can only exist for short periods of time.
  12. High energy (1MeV) Beta particles may have range as long as _______ in soft tissue.
    2cm
  13. What is Bremsstrahlung radiation more likely to occur with?
    Beta particles
  14. What are the most common types of ionizing radiation used in XRT?
    X-rays, Gamma rays & Electrons
  15. X-rays & gamma rays are both forms of:
    Electromagnetic radiation (photons)
  16. How much exposure comes from natural background sources?
    82%
  17. How is the background radiation broken down?
    • Radon 55%
    • Cosmic 8%
    • Terrestrial 8%
    • Internal 11%
  18. What is the secong leading cause of lung Ca in the US?
    (behind smoking)
    Radon
  19. note:

    1 Gy = 100 cGy = 100 rad
    100 rad = 1 Gy = 100 cGy
  20. The amount of ionization produced by photons in air per unit mass of air:
    Exposure

    • traditional: roentgen (R)
    • SI: 2.58 x 10-4 C/kg
  21. What is the traditional unit for absorbed dose?
    • rad 
    • Radiation Absorbed Dose
  22. What the units of measure for exposure?
    Traditional:  roentgen (R)

    SI:  C/kg  (Coulomb of charge per kilogram of air)

    1R = 2.58 x 10-4 C/kg
  23. What are the units of measure for absorbed dose?
    Traditional: rad

    SI: Gy

    1Gy = 100 rad
  24. What takes in to account the fact that different types of radiation produce different amounts of biologic damage?
    Dose Equivalent
  25. Each type of radiation is assigned a _________ _________ to account for the different biologic effects & responses
    Quality Factor (QF)
  26. Quality Factor (QF) is also known as 
    Weighing factor
  27. What are the units of measure for dose equivalent?
    Traditional:  rem

    SI: sievert (Sv)

    100rem = 1Sv
  28. What are the units of measure for activity?
    Traditional: curie (Ci) 3.7x1010 disintegrations per second

    SI: becquerel (Bq) 1 disintegration per second

    1Ci = 3.7 x 1010 Bq
  29. The rate at which a radioactive isotope undergoes nuclear decay:
    Activity

    1Ci = 3.7x1010 Bq
  30. note:
    1 Ci = 1000 mCi
    1 mCi = 1000 uCi
  31. The energy absorbed per unit mass of any material:
    Absorbed Dose

    1 Gy = 100 rad = 100 cGy
  32. Quality Factor (QF) of x-rays & gamma rays:
    1
  33. Quality Factor (QF) of beta particles, positrons & muons?
    1
  34. Quality Factor (QF) of high energy external protons:
    1
  35. Quality Factor (QF) of protons, other than recoil protons & energy   2 Mev
    2
  36. Quality Factor (QF) of thermal neutrons:
    5
  37. Quality Factor (QF) of fast neutrons:
    20
  38. Quality Factor (QF) of alpha particles:
    20
  39. Quality Factor (QF) of fission fragments & other heavy nuclei:
    20
  40. What are two types of gas-filled detectors?
    • Ionization Chamber
    • Geiger-Muller Detecter (GM)
  41. What is the sensitivity of a gas filled detector dependant upon?
    The mass of the gas within the chamber (chamber volume) & the Applied Voltage
  42. A type of detector that consists of two electrodes within a gas filled chamber, an applied voltage accross the electrodes & electronics and a meter to amplify & measure the electrical signal
    • Ionization Chamber
    • (the simplest kind)
  43. When ionization chambers are properly calibrated, their accuracy approaches _____%, which makes them suitable for the measurement of radiation output of therapy machines.
    2% accuracy
  44. What is a form of ionization chamber used for personnel monitoring?
    Pocket Dosimeter
  45. Because of their sensitivity, are ionization chambers suitable for the detection of very low levels of radiation or comtamination?
    No
  46. Because of their sensitivity, are GM detectors suitable for detection of very low levels of radiation or contamination?
    Yes
  47. Should a GM detector be used to measure the high energies of a LINAC?
    • NO
    • The GM counter can overload & produce a reading of zero if placed in a high level radiation field
  48. What kind of gas-filled detector can detect individual ionization events & responds defferently to different photon energies?
    Geiger-Muller (GM) Detector

    (strongly energy dependent)
  49. What kind of detector gives off light when heated?
    • Thermoluminescent Dosimeters
    • (TLDs)
  50. Because of ________, TLDs are ________ used to measure radiation in a number of applications
    • their SMALL SIZE
    • WIDELY used
  51. What is the atomic number of Lithium Fluoride similar to?
    • The atomic number of LiF is close to that of 
    • TISSUE 

    Li-3  F-9
  52. What is the accuracy rate of TLDs?
    If proper care is taken, doses can be measured with an accuracy of approx:  5%
  53. TLDs: The more radiation absorbed by the crystal, the more _______ will be in the ______ & the more _______ will be released when the crystal is heated later.
    The more radiation absorbed by the crystal, the more ELECTRONS will be in the TRAPS and the more CHARACTEISTIC PHOTONS will be released when he crystal is heated later.
  54. TLDs:
    The amount of ________ is a measure of the dose received by the crystal.
    Light
  55. What kind of detector can store the dose info for hours, days, or even weeks?
    Thermoluminescent Dosimeter

    all info is lost if heated in transit
  56. What kind of detector can be used for mailed intercomparison of therapy unit calibration, in ring badges for personnel and/or for rmeasurements of environmental levels of radiation?
    TLDs
  57. After development, x-ray film turns black. The level of blackness is called the:
    Optical Density
  58. Optical Density, or the amount of _______, is related to the ________ of _________ received by the film
    • BLACKNESS
    • AMOUNT
    • RADIATION
  59. Once calibrated, the film badge is a _____ and ______ way to provide info about the dose received by workers & visitors
    • Convenient
    • Inexpensive
  60. A typical ________ has a slot in which the _______ may be placed & several thin metal filters that surround portions of the _______.
    • Film Badge
    • Film
    • Film

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