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True or false: Blood is not a connective tissue
Blood consists of :
- Red blood cells (erythrocytes), whit blood cells (leukocytes), and platelets (thrombocytes)
- The first two of these are cells '
- Platelets are cell fragments
- These components are collectively called Formed elementsA thick liquid connective tissue matrix (plasma) surrounds these formed elements.
What does plasma consist of ?
primarily salt water and protiens
What is Lymph
- a filtrate of blood with most of the cells and some of the protein removed
- White blood cells move around in the lymph to gaurd against invaders.
True or False: In order for cells to combine and form tissues the elements of each cells cytoskeleton must be linked to another cell or to the connective tissue supporting the cell.
- Need to link cytoskeleton to adjacent cells to each other
- Or, need to link cyto skeleton to the extracellular matrix.
- The Ziploc bags of the tissue world
- Form a tight leak proof seal between two or more cells where substances cannot be allow to percolate between cells
- Example: in the inestines where it is important to keep the outside out (in the intestinal lumaen) and keep the insides of the intestinal cells from getting stale and moldy.
What are the different types of Cell Juncitons?
- Tight junctions
- Adherens junctions
- Gap junction
- These use a protein called cadherin
- These work like a belt on your pants, keeps tissues from separating as they stretch and contract
- are used as "spot welds" to hold tissue together against mechanical disruption.
- These junctions are cadherin between the cells, with intermediate filament proteins in each cell to form a continuous, strong, structure.
- Half of a desmosome
- found between a cell and its basement membrane
- On the cell side, intermediate filaments anchor the cytoskeleton to the integrins, which are in turn connected to the basement membrane.
- The other junctions serve as mainly mechanical links
- In contrast, the gap junction serves as an electrical and biochemical link between two cells.
- A protein, connexin, forms pore-like structures called connexons (these allow small ions to pass from cell to cell)
- Monomers and polymers can pass between cells as well.
- If a cell becomes very sick, these connexons can seal off like a ships hatch, isolating the damaged cell so that it can die alone without making others sick.
What are Membranes?
- Flat and flexible sheets which form a lining where parts of the body come together
- They consist of and epithelium plus underlying areolar connective tissue.
Epithelial Membranes= epithelium + connective tissue
- -Mucous membranes
- -Serous membranes
- -Cutaneous membranes
- connective tissues only, lack an epithelial layer
- - connective tissue secretes synovial fluid - lubricates joints
- Line the space between two bones forming a joint
- Joints allow movement while preventing the bones from rubbing against on another and causing damage to the bone.
- Line the interface between the body cavities and the outside world.
- the connective tissue layer of mucous membranes is called lamina propia.
- Examples: Digestive tract, respiratory tract, reproductive tract
- form a lining between the body wall and internal organs.
- examples: parietal layer next to body wall, visceral layer next to organs
or skin, covers the outside of the body away from cavities.
Muscle _______ is present wherever the body needs to generate _____. It ______ the body, ______ posture, and ________ heat.
tissue, force, moves, maintains, generates
Each kind of muscle tissue uses at least two cytockeletal proteins to generate force. These are :
- Myosin and actinactin is the same protein that we saw as microfilaments in the cytoskeleton
What are the three main types of Muscle Tissue?
- Skeletal muscle alsoe called voluntary muscle
- Cardiac muscle
- Smooth muscle
Skeletal Muscle/ voluntary muscle
- it is under our voluntary controll (that is, we "choose" to use it to generate forces)
- a type of striated muscle and it appears to be stripped or straited if we look at it under a microscope
- Made up of muscle cells that have fused to form a long, thin tube or myofiber called a syncytium (joined cells), with mutiple nuclei visible on the out side of the muscle fiber.
- also has a striated appearance like skeletal muscle
- The fibers are joined in branches
- found only in the heart
- not under volentqry control
- not under voluntary control
- Example: the gut tube is lined with smooth muscle tohat keeps digestion proceeding from the mouth to anus. also arteries
- There are single cells each with one nucleus
- the cytoskeleton is arranged ina random fashoion sto that it does not have a striated apperance
True or False: Nervous tissue manipulates information.
One group of nerv cells (neurons) recieve...
sensory information from energy in the environment.
True or false: the vast majority of the estimated 100 billion nerons in the human nervous system are information procession neurons.
Another neuronal group _________ information to muscle or glandular tissue that makes up the _______ ______ of the body (that is they _______ some sort of output, either the _______ of a muscle or the _______ of a gland.
transmits, effector tissues, produce, movement, secretion
Individual neurons carry out these three funcitons:
- They recieve, process, and transmit informationthey are aided by glial cells, which carry out structural and nutritional support of the nourvous system.
Together, _______ and ______ tissue are call excitible tissue. This is because, by _________ the flow of eledtrical charge, they can produce _____ _________ and other uniqe electrical events inside the cell.
muscle, nerve, manipulating, action potentials
- Only tissue in the body that can manipurlate electrical charges to recieve, process and transmit information
- -Muscle cells manipulate charges but conract and dont send information
- -all other tissues have electrical charges but most can't conrol them
- Two main cell types
- -neurons: information processing
- -glial cells (glia): support and maintenance