Medical Nursing Week 11

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Gia_bella
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182357
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Medical Nursing Week 11
Updated:
2012-11-13 19:17:23
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Medical Nursing Week 11 Bovine Porcine
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Bovine and Porcine
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  1. Bovine Medicine
    Physical
    • Temp 99-102
    • Pules 60-70
    • Respiration =30
  2. Bovine Medicine
    Anatomy
    • Ruminant 4 chamber stomach
    • Rumen
    • Reticulum
    • Omasum
    • Abomasum (Gastric Stomach)

    • Herbivore
    • Beef or dairy
  3. Bovine Medicine
    Venipuncture
    Coccygeal vein or jugular
  4. Bovine Medicine
    Diseases
    Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR)
    • Infectiopus Pustular vulvovaginitis- IPV
    • Etiology- cause
    •       Herpesvirus (BHV-1)
    •      Multiform disease causing respiratory, genital and encephalitis
    • Epidemiology
    •    Respiratory Form
    •      Feedlots
    •      Crowded areas
    •      Incubation 2-6 days
    • Genital
    •      Natural and artificial insemination
    •      Incubation 2-3 days
  5. Bovine Medicine
    Diseases
    Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR)
    Infectious Pustular Vulvovaginitis- (IPV)
    • Clinical Signs
    •      Respiratory
    •            Pyrexia- fever
    •            Rhinitis (red nose)
    •           Nasal discharge and oral ulcers
    •          Salivation
    •     Genital
    •          Abortions
    •         Vaginitis and penile lesions
    •         Diarrhea and convulsions in young calves
    • Diagnosis
    •      Clinical signs
    •       Virus isolation
    • Treatment
    •       Symptomatic not treated due to economics
    • Prevention
    •       Vaccination
    •               IM- Feedlots
    •               Intranasal- bleeding
    •              Intranasal works best
  6. Bovine medicine
    Disease
    Shipping Fever
    • Etiology
    •    Severe respiratory disease associated with stress and shipping of young cattle
    •     Multifactorial organism cause but associated primarily with Pasteurella sp
    •    Pasteurella haemolytica and multocida
    •    Parainfluenza virus 3 (PI-3)
    • Clinical Signs
    •       Pyrexia and anorexia
    •      Mucopurulent nasal discharge
    •      Caughing and dyspnea
    •      Fibrinous pleuralpneumonia (fiber tags on lungs)
    • Diagnosis
    •       Clinical signs
    •      Necropsy
    • Treatment
    •      Antibodies- bacterial
    •            Penicillin
    •           Streptomycin
    •           Naxel- no withdrawel time
    • Prevention
    •      Prevent stress and vaccination of viral diseases 3-4 weeks before shipping
    •       PI-3 (parainfluenza Virus 3)
  7. Bovine Medicine
    Diseases
    Bovine Viral Disease (BVD)
    • Etiology
    •      Pestivirus - Togaviridae
    •     Characteriaed by fever, erosions, and hoemorrhage of the alimentary tract (the tubular passage extending from the mouth to the anus, through which food is passed and digested), depression and diarrhea
    •     Cattle 9-24 months of ageTransmission direct contact
    •      Incubation period 5-10 days
    • Clinical Signs
    •      Oral lesions and erosions
    •      Pyrexia and anorexia
    •     Bloody and maloderous diarrhea
    •     Leukopenia
    •     Abortions
    • Diagnosis
    •     Clinical signs
    •     Necropsy
    •         Hemorrhage and lyphoid necrosis
    •     Virus isolation
    •               Spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, peyers patches
    • Diagnosis important for BVD, to differentiate from Rinderpest and Foot and Mouth disease
    • Treatment
    •   Symptomatic
    •   Usually not treated due to costs
    • prevention
    •   Vaccination
    •   Management
  8. Bovine Medicine
    Diseases
    Displaced Abomasum
    • Etiology
    • a. Characterized by acute disease that occurs in cows within 2 days- 2 weeks after calving.
    • b. Inappetence, dehydration and distention of the abdomen on either the right or left side.
    •     Caused by fluid or gas accumulation in the abomasum
    • c. Left displaced abomasum (LDA) more common than RDA
    • d. Caused by heavy grain feeding (corn) which causes increased ruminal flow and gas production
    • Clinical Signs
    •        Inappetance, drop milk production and ketosis
    •       Distended abdomen and decreased gut sounds
    •       Metabolic alkolosis
    •      Ping on ausculation of abdomen
    •    ( Listen for gut sounds)
    • Diagnosis
    •    Clinical signs and palpation
    • Treatment
    •    Surgery- omentopexy or abomasopexy
    •    Fluid support

    Metabolic Alkolosis- Abnormally high alkalinity of the body fluids caused by ingesting excess alkalis or loss of large amounts of acid
  9. Bovine Medicine
    Diseases
    Brucellosis
    • Etiology- zoonotic
    • Bangs disease (swollen testicles)
    • Contagious disease effecting cattle, sheep, goats and dogs
    • Characteriazed by abortions and infertility in both sexes
    • Brucella abortus in cattle
    • Transmission is through ingestion, venereal, vectors
    • Causes Malta or undulent fever in humans
    • Clinical signs
    •     Abortions and infertility
    • Diagnosis
    •       Bacteriology
    •           Culture from milk, placenta, lungs, stomach, fetus
    •       Serum agglutination test
    •           Standard method in cattle
    •           Serum (beef cattle) or milk- Dairy Cattle
    •       Brucella ring test
    •             Official screening test
    •            Tests milk sample
    •           Repeat herds suspect 3-4 months intervals
    •      Market cattle testing (MCT)- beef cattle
    •           Screening test for nondairy herds
    •           Bloods test
    • Treatment
    •      Antibiotics
    •     Usually slaughtered
    • Prevention
    •       Once Brucella Positive herd is found, the herd is tested at regular interval until 2-3 negative tests are obtained.
    •       Positive cows are removed from the herd
    •       Vaccination with B. abortus strain 19 (live Vaccine)
    •  Brucellosis ear tags
    •    Tag on right ear
    •    1st symbol is quarter of the year
    •    2nd symbol is veterinary sheild
    •   3rd symbol is the number of present year
  10. Bovine Medicine
    Diseases
    Brucellosis
    Discospondylitis is an infection of one or more bones in the spinal column
  11. Bovine Medicine
    Diseases
    Mastitis
    Definition
    • Inflammation of the mammary gland, usually caused by infection
    • Great economic importance in the dairy industry
  12. Bovine Medicine
    Diseases
    Mastitis
    • Etiology
    • Poor milking hygiene
    •      Machine faults
    •     Poor technique and cleanliness
    • Treat injury
    • Teat sores
    • Environmental pathogens and infection
    • Common pathogens in order of the most common
    •        Staphylococcus aureus- most common
    •        streptococcus uberis
    •        strep. agalactia
    •        E. coli
    •        Klebsiella
    •       Pseudomonas
    •       Mycobacterium
    •       Mycoplasma
    •      Pasteurella
    • Clinical Signs- lumps and bumps
    •     Four Types
    •         Peracute- usually in dogs
    •             swelling, heat, pain and abnormal secretions from mammary gland
    •            Fever, depression and anorexia
    •        Acute
    •            Same symptoms as Peracute, except moderate in condition
    • Subacute
    •      No systemic effect
    •      Mild changes to gland and secretions
    • Subclinical
    •    No clinical symptoms or effects on gland
    •    Detected only by testing of milk or glands 
    • subacute or subclinical are found in the ones tested often because they are tested often
    • Diagnosis
    •   Clinical signs
    •     Drop milk production
    •    WBC in milk counts
    •    Culture and sensitivity
    •   California Mastitis Test (CMT)- done everyday
    •    Paddle with 4 cups with 2ml of reagent and milk mixed together and swirled
    • Positive test if agglutination and gel formation
    • Bulk test and single count test
    • Treatment
    •     Systemic antibiotics
    •          Penicillin
    •   Udder infusions
    •       Intramammary infusions with antibiotics
    • Many times mastitis treatment will respond better drying off the cow, rather than treatment while still lactating
    • Recover rates
    •     Spontanteous- 20%
    •     Lactation treatment- 30-40%
    •     Dry treatment- 80-90%
  13. Bovine Medicine
    Diseases
    Vaccines
    Campylobacteriosis
    • Campylobactor fetus sbsp. veneralis
    • Abortions
  14. Bovine Medicine
    Diseases
    Vaccines
    Brucellosis
    • B. abortus strain 19
    • Live Bacteria
  15. Bovine Medicine
    Diseases
    Vaccines
    Leptosporosis
    Bacteria causing hemolytic anemia, abortions, nephritis, and decreased milk production
  16. Bovine Medicine
    Diseases
    Vaccines
    Anthrax
    • Bacillis anthracis
    • Causes septicemia and acute death
    • Find dead animals with blood leaking from all orifaces, and absence of rigor mortis
    • Vaccinate in endemic areas
  17. Bovine Medicine
    Diseases
    Vaccines
    Clostrideum vaccines
    • a. Clostrideum chauvoei (black leg)
    •        Lameness
    •        edema and SQ air
    • b. Clostrideum septicum (Malignant edema)
    •          Tissue necrosis and discoloration
    •          swelling and tissue exudate
    • c. C. novyi type B and C. haemolyticum (C. novyi type D)
    •          Primary effect the liver
    • d. Clostridium perfringens type B,C, D
    •          Effects gastrointestinal tract
    •          Hemorragic diarrhea and enteritis
    • e. Clostridium tetani
    •             Tetanus that effects the CNS
    •             Muscle rigidity and convulsions
  18. Bovine Medicine
    Diseases
    Vaccines
    Bovine Respiratory Complex Vaccines
    • a. Parainfluenza 3 (Shipping fever)
    • b. BVD
    • c.Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) or red nose
    • d. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV)
    •           anorexia, sneezing, ocular and nasal discharge, pulmonary edema and emphysema
    • e. Pasteurella multocida and haemolytica
    •        Fibrinous pneumonia
    •         Part of shipping fever
    • f. Haemonphilis somnus and haemolytica
    •         Fibrinopurulent pneumonia
  19. Bovine Medicine
    Diseases
    Vaccines
    Enteric Disease Vaccine
    • Bovine rotovirus
    • Coronavirus
    • E. Coli
    • All cause diarrhea and enteritits
  20. Porcine Medicine
    Physical
    • Temperature 102-104
    • Heart Rate 60-120
    • Respiration 19
  21. Procine Medicine
    Injection sites
    • Venipuncture- Jugular or caudal venicava
    • IV Catheters- Ear vein - not performed much
    • Injections- Subcutaneous
  22. Porcine medicine
    Diseases
    Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGE)
    • Etiology
    •         Corona disease of the small intestines that cause vomiting and diarrhea in pigs
    •       Incubation period 18 hours
    •     Transmission by aerosol and contact
    • Clinical signs
    •      Vomiting and diarrhea
    •      Diarrhea with undigested milk
    •     Dehydration
    • Diagnosis- Indirect Florescent Antibody
    •     IFA of small intestines
    • Treatment
    •    Symptomatic
    •    Cull
    •    Vaccination
  23. Porcine Medicine
    Dieases
    Psuedorabies (Aujeszkys disease)
    • Etiology- respiratory
    • Herpes virus that effects all species except man and tailless primates
    • Causes neurological disease in piglets and abortion in adult pigs.
    • Transmission by contact, feces, venereal, lacrimal (discharge or tearing)
    • Incubation period about 48hours
    • eradication program
    • Clinical Signs
    •       starts with URI of sneezing and coughing
    •      Followed by anorexia, fever and neurological disease
    •      Trembling and convulsions
    •      Excitation
    •     Neonatal piglet death
    •              100% mortality in 0-3 weeks old
    •           40-60% mortality in 3-4 weeks old
    • Mad itch
    •       Cattle, sheep, dogs, cats show aggressiveness and agitation
    •        Pruritis
    •       Fatal
    • Diagnosis
    •       Serology
    •      Tonsillar IFA
    •       FA aborted fetal tissue
    • Treatment
    •       None
    •       Vaccination
  24. Porcine Medicine
    Diseases
    Atrophic Rhinitis- Deformation of the snout
    • Etiology
    •    Bordatella bronchiseptica
    •    Multifactorial disease
    •    Causes sneezing and atrophy of turbinate bones, which results in nasal septum deformation
    • Clinical signs
    •      Sneezing
    •      Effects piglets 3-8 weeks of age
    •     Snout deformation
    • Treatment
    •    Antibiotics- Tylosin and sulfonamides
    •    Vaccination
    •    Management
  25. Porcine medicine
    Disease
    Pneumonia and respiratory disease
    • Etiology
    •      Pasteurella multocida
    •      Haemophilis pleuropnuemonia (Thumps)
    •      Swine influenza- Type A
    • Clinical signs
    •      Ocular and nasal discharge
    •      Febrile and anorexia
    •     Pneumonia
    • Diagnosis
    •     Antibiotics if indicated

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