Art and the World: Rome

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Art and the World: Rome
2012-11-12 17:53:20

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    • Sarcophagus with reclining couple, from Cerveteri, Italy
    • ca 520 BC
    • Sarcophagi in the form of a husband and wife on a dining couch have no parallels in Greece. The artist's focus on the upper half of the figures and the emphatic gestures are Etruscan hallmark
    • Dinner party- death is one great big party
    • Women attended the dinner parties- had almost equal status, unlike in greece
    • Men never in nude like in Greece
    • Interior of the Tomb of the Leopards, Tarquinia, Italy
    • ca. 480–470 BCE
    • Mural paintings adorn many of the underground tombs at Tarquinia. In this tomb, banqueting couples, servants, and musicians celebrate the joys of the good life. The men have dark skin, the women fair skin.
    • Reinforces idea that death is like a party
    • Aule Metele (Arringatore), from Cortona, near Lake Trasimeno, Italy
    • early first century BCE
    • Inscribed in Etruscan, this bronze statue of an orator is Etruscan in name only. Aule Metele wears the short toga and high boots of a Roman magistrate, and the style of the portrait is also Roman.
    • Etruscans influenced Rome a lot!- first to wear togas, build drainage system, have roads, women at almost equal status
  1. Head of an old man, from Osimo
    • mid first century BCE
    • Veristic (superrealistic) portraits of old men from distinguished families were the norm during the Republic. The sculptor of this head painstakingly recorded every detail of the elderly man's face.
    • No portraits of young men, becuase it was believed that old ruled best
    • Climbing social ladder could only be done when you were old
  2. Portrait of a Roman general, from the Sanctuary of Hercules, Tivoli, Italy
    • ca. 75–50 BCE
    • The sculptor based this life-size portrait of a general on idealized Greek statues of heroes and athletes, but the man's head is a veristic likeness. The eclectic combination is typical of Republican art.
    • Greek heroic budity, but cloak covers part of the body
    • Idea of portrait was in the HEAD
  3. Funerary relief with portraits of the Gessii, from Rome(?), Italy
    • ca. 30 BCE.
    • Roman freedmen often placed reliefs depicting themselves and their former owners on the facades of their tombs. The portraits and inscriptions celebrated their freedom and new status as citizens.
    • Never tried to hide the fact that they were former slaves
    • Took last name of their faily when they were freed- slaves were part of the extended Roman family
    • Used art to try to make status
  4. Typical Roman House
    • Atrium of the House of the Vettii, Pompeii, Italy;  second century BCE, rebuilt 62–79 CERoman townhouses had a central atrium with an impluvium to collect rainwater. Cubicula (bedrooms) opened onto the atrium, and in Hellenized houses such as this one, builders added a peristyle garden at the rear.
    • 2 parts- public and private
    • In atrium was lararium- household shrines for house spirits (lara): place offerings there, place also in taverns
    • Tubulinum- area where man of the house would greet clients
    • Then in back enter private section
  5. Alexander's head v. Republic head
    • Portrait of Augustus as general, from Primaporta, Italy
    • early first century CE copy of a bronze original of ca. 20 BCE
    • Octavian, grand nephew of Julius Ceaser and adopted as his heir, was named Augustus in 27 BC, which began the time of the Roman Empire.  He was only about 30, much younger than the typical senators and consuls of the Republic.
    • Made transfer from republic to empire through images
    • Augustus' head- based on Classical Greek image
    • Through his 30 plus years had same head- remained eternally youthful
    • hair like Doryphoros
    • Empire is large- would not actually see the emperor, so official image was all that he had
  6. Livia's head and Alexander's Head
    • Portrait bust of Livia, from Arsinoe, Egypt
    • early first century CE
    • Coiffure of the time
    • Although Livia sports the latest Roman coiffure, her youthful appearance and sharply defined features derive from images of Greek goddesses. She lived until 87, but, like Augustus, never aged in her portraits.
  7. Augustus as General
    • Portrait of Augustus as general, from Primaporta, Italy
    • early first century CE copy of a bronze original of ca. 20 BCE
    • Augustus's idealized portraits were modeled on Classical Greek statues  and depict him as a never-aging son of a god. This portrait presents the emperor in armor in his role as general.
    • Shows him in role as military commander
    • based on Doryphoros, but he is addressing the troops
    • Cupid riding on a dolphin- Julli Claudi line supposedly went all the way to Venus (divine relationship)
    • In center of breastplate, barbarian gives Roman solider back military standards- everyone knew the story of how Augustus  got back from barbarians
  8. Ara Pacis Augustae
    • Ara Pacis Augustae (Altar of Augustan Peace), view from the southwest, Rome, Italy)
    • 13–9 BCE
    • Augustus sought to present his new order as a Golden Age equaling that of Athens under Pericles. The Ara Pacis celebrates the emperor's most important achievement, the establishment of peace.
    • Procession releif- can ID figures, including Augustus, women & children are shown on the relief- idea of family (also alluding to porcession on the Parthenon- ideals, wonders of Greece)
    • Relief shows personification of tellus, two bouncing babies in her lap, surrounded by flora and fauna= fertility, prosperity
    • Rome, Italy, AD 81
    • Triumphel arch- have to be granted by senate, there is a procession
    • Titus and vespassian captured Jeruselum- Vesappian needed military victory to give his dynasty legitmacy
    • Propaganda- 2 victories and a procession, releifs w/ spoils of Jeruselem, Triummp of Titus being crowned by Victory
    • Center, under arch is Relief w/ Apotheosis of Titus- emperor's soul is taken by birds of Jupiter
    • Domitian erected this arch on the road leading into the Roman Forum to honor his brother, the emperor Titus, who became a god after his death. Victories fill the spandrels of the arcuated passageway.
    • Aerial view of the Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheater), Rome, Italy
    • ca. 70–80 CE
    • A complex system of concrete barrel vaults once held up the seats in the world's largest amphitheater, where 50,000 spectators could watch gladiatorial combats and wild animal hunts.
    • Built next to Colassus of nero- transmformed to be god of sun after he was damned.
    • Strict seating arrangement based on class
    • Made by Flavian dynasty- before there was no permenant amphitheater
    • Pantheon, Rome, Italy
    • 118–125 CE
    • Made by Hadrian
    • Shows the full use of concrete
    • Originally, the approach to Hadrian's "temple of all gods" in Rome was from a columnar courtyard. Like a temple in a Roman forum, the Pantheon stood at one narrow end of the enclosure.
    • The coffered dome of the Pantheon is 142 feet in diameter and 142 feet high. The light entering through its oculus forms a circular beam that moves across the dome as the sun moves across the sky.
    • Cylinder drum/dome made w. concrete of different composittions- lighter pumice used at top to keep the weight down
    • Used coffers- lighten the structure w/o making it weaker
    • Giant oculus at time- lets in light, way wind moves up keeps rain from coming in
    • Used different colored marble all over the floor
    • Painted portrait of Septimius Severus and his family, from Egypt
    • ca. 200 CE
    • The only known painted portrait of an emperor shows Septimius Severus with gray hair- may have been shown as old in other types of portriats as well
    • Survived b/c the wood would not rot away in the dry climate of Egypt
    • All men hold septors- symbols of power
    •  With him are his wife Julia Domna and their two sons, but Geta's head was removed after his damnatio memoriae- goes all the way out to  Egypt
    • Portrait of Caracalla
    • ca. 211–217 CE
    • Caracalla's suspicious personality is brilliantly captured in this portrait. The emperor's brow is knotted, and he abruptly turns his head over his left shoulder, as if he suspects danger from behind.
    • Close cut hair, fierce expression= era of military emperors
    • 18 at time, but used x shape on face to make him look much older- wanted to ,ook like great miltary ruler- tumultuous times, when border was eroding, sects were popping up, imperial times falling apart
    • Heroic portrait of Trebonianus Gallus, from Rome, Italy
    • 251–253 CE
    • In this over-life-size heroically nude statue, Trebonianus Gallus projects an image of brute force. He has the massive physique of a powerful wrestler, but his face has a nervous expression.
    • Disproportionate- when stood on a tall pedestal looked more natural
    • Close-cropped hair, muscular, animalistic face-  wnated to be associated with military
    • Nude- allusion to Hellenistic models
    • ca. 305 CE
    • Portraits of the four tetrarchs, from Constantinople
    • Older Augustiwhere beards, clutch the younger Ceasers
    • Diocletian established the tetrarchy to bring order to the Roman world- recognized that the area was just too big to be ruled alone= divides empire into 4 terr, each with its own capital and army
    • Made of porphory- purple marble, the color associated with royality= hard stone to carve, more geometric than detaliled
    • Visual message= identical, b/c they were a united empire= homogenous image of "the rulers"
    • In group portraits, artists always depicted the four co-rulers as nearly identical partners in power, not as distinct individuals.