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What is the definition of Race:
A division of human beings identified by the possession of traits that are transmissible by decent and that are sufficient to characterize persons possessing these traits as a distinctive human genotype.
What is the definition of ethnicity?
a cultural concept in which a large number of people who share learned or acquired traits and close social interaction, regard themselves, and are regarded by others as constituting a single group on that basis.
What is the definition of national origin?
A person or their ancestors' place of origin. Also applies to a person who has the physical, cultural, or linguistic characteristics of a national group.
What is the definition of culture?
Culture encompasses the values, attitudes, customs, beliefs and habits shared by members of a society Culture can include physical or material objects as well as nonmaterial values.
When some members of a cultural group adapt their cultural traits to those of the host society it is called:
When members of a cultural group retain their own distinctive traditions and lifestyle while living within the host society it is called...
According to OMB the 5 designated races are:
- 1. American Indian or Alaska Native
- 2. Asian
- 3. Black
- 4. Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander
- 5. White
"A person having origins in any of the original people's of North and South American (including Central America) and who maintains tribal affiliation or community attachment" is the definition of what race?
American Indian or Alaska Native
"A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia or the Indian subcontinent, including Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand and Vietnam" is the definition of what race?
"A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa." is the definition of what race?
"A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa or other Pacific Islands" is the definition of what race?
Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander
"A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East or North Africa" is the definition of what race?
Difference between definitions:
__________ focuses on traits that are readily visible, while __________ is a cultural concept where people share learned or acquired traits.
RACE focuses on traits that are readily visible, while ETHNICITY is a cultural concept where people share learned or acquired traits.
The two ethnic groups identified by the OMB are:
- Hispanic or Latino
- Not Hispanic or Latino
REMEMBER: A person may take the customs or culture of his or her national origin and may adapt to the new culture (acculturation) or may retain the original culture within the new society (subculture).
Explain White American: Era of Mass Immigration: (1820-1880)
- - 15 million came to the US. Primarily from Northern/Western Europe.
- - Many chose agriculture in the midwest/northeast. Others flocked to cities like NY, Phili, Boston, Baltimore.
- - Main groups were:
- -- Irish: oppressed "inferior race" peasants, catholic, anti-british. Poor, had little skills, little education.
- -- Scandinavians: Settled midwest, transformed the culture of the midwest. They were farmers, lumberjacks, sailors, dock workers, craftsmen. Came from countries with compulsory education, high literacy rate.
Describe White American Religion
- 78% Christian (53% Protestant, 22% Catholic, 2% Mormon)
- 5% Other Religions (2% Jewish)
- 16% Unaffiliated or Unknown
Describe White American Military Service Participation
- Fewer whites in the military than civilian workforce.
- 67% in the military vs. 71% in the civilian workforce.
- Active: 65%
- Reserve: 70%
- Civilian: 71%
- HIGHEST % WHITES:
- Air Force Active: 72%
- Air Force Guard: 80%
- LOWEST % WHITES:
- Army Active: 60%
- Army Reserve: 60%
OIF/OEF deaths: 71% (high)
White American: Prominent Individuals:
- Levi Strauss (German): Blue Jeans, for miners
- Albert Einstein (German): Theory of Relativity
- Pierre-Charles L'Enfant (French): Designed Wash D.C.
- Frederic Auguste Bartholdi (French): Statue of Liberty
- Christopher Saur (German): printed first bible in the US
- Joseph Pulitzer (Hungary): Am Newspaper/Pulitzer Prize
- Irving Belin (Russian): Songwriter (God Bless America)
- Alexander Graham Bell (Scotland): Telephone/telecom
- John Jacob Astor (Germany): First tycoon, fur trade
- Andrew Carnegie (Scotland): Steel Industry in Pittsburg
- Alfred Hitchcock (Engish): Movie director
- Wright Bros (English): Aeronautical Research
- Vince Lombardi (Italian): Football coach
- Eleuthere Irene duPont deNemours (French): Gunpowder
- William "Wild Bill" Donovan: Intel/CIA
- John Garand (French Canadian): M1 Rifle
- Paul Revere: Midnight Ride- warn of British Troops
- Robert E. Lee: Great-Great Grandfather was rich/politically influential in VA
- Hilary Clinton: Sec of State, advisor on foreign policy
Definition of Black/African American revisited (Remember there are 2 questions):
Humans of a dark skinned phenotype (color)
People having origins in any of the black race groups of Africa
People who reported their race as black/african american or negro who wrote in African American, Afro American, Nigerian or Haitian.
Term has shifted form Colored to Negro to Black in an attempt to redefine, to gain respect/standing in society.
Black is not an indicator of skin color but of racial classification. Not solely based on skin pigment. Societies apply different criteria (socio economic) status can play a role. Light skinned people can be black, dark skin people can be classified as white if they fill certain social criteria.
What is the 3/5 Compromise?
During the Constitutional Convention (1787) determined representation in the House of Reps would be based on the population of each state. North did not want to count slaves, for fear the south would have more representatives. Southerns believed that not counting slaves woudl but the south at a disadvantage. 3/5 Compromise was established counting each slave as 3/5 a person.
Black American: Health Conditions/Risk Factors:
- CDC, 10 leading causes of death are:
- Heart disease, cancer stroke, unintentional injury, diabetes, homicide, nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, nephrosis, chronic lower respriatory disease, HIV/AIDS, Septicemia.
- Disparities between BAA and other groups:
- Life expectancy, infant mortality, and other health measures.
- Average American life span: 77.8 yrs
- Average BAA lifespan: 73.1 yrs
- Reason: discrimination, cultural barriers, lack of access (economic)
Black American: Conditions in Inner Cities
10 times more likely to be murdered (especially living in inner cities)
School Funding: inner city public schools are supported with fewer tax dollars, thus spending less money per student than affluent middle class public schools. Inner city schools receive half the funding given to suburban schools.
- 46% of prisoners are Black
- 18% have no health insurance
- Under represented in politics
Black American: Prominent Individuals:
- Tuskegee Airmen: Respectable combat record 15K sorites, 1K german a/c kills.
- Harriet Tubman: The only American woman to lead troops on the field of battle.
- Admiral Robert E. Peary: First to reach the North Pole
- Gen Benjamin O Davis Jr: 2nd Black G.O. in the AF. Son of a tuskegee amn/1st black G.O. in Army.
- Doris Miller: Mess attendant on USS West Virginia. Heavy weight boxing champ. carried wounded to safety during attacks on pearl harbor. manned anti a/c gun.
- Gen Colin Powell: 35 yr, 4 star. Asst to President as CJCS highest position in US military. Secretary of State.
Asian/Pacific Americans Chapter consists of 2 races according to OMB-
- 1. Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander
- 2. Asian
Asian American: Cultural Influence
- Chinese: 1st- Cheap labor (Recruited by HSPA)
- 2nd Threat- took away american jobs
- 3rd- Anti- Chinese Legislation
- Sugar Planters, Gold, then Railroad, Restaurants/Laudries.
Japanese: Started- Plantation workers in HI work stopped due to harsh conditions. Then came to mainland to farm. Controlled land in CA. Also run stores, restaurants/hotels.
Filipino: Manila Men- sailors. landed in Morro bay. 12 original settlers in LA. settled in St Malo LA, New Orleans. Shrimp harversters. Pensionado Act scholarships awarded, then expected to work for Philippines Gov. HSPA recruited also- 3 yr contracts.
Asian Indian ( Only one not HSPA) Skilled in agriculture, farmed in CA. leased land. Grew Cash Crops. Study engineering/Med/agriculture/manufacturing.
Korean American: 120 came over in 1903, low wage workers. Koran war began 1950 war brides and orphans = rapid korean population growth.
Asian Cultural Influence:
Lower unemployment, lower poverty rate, collective families... same high school education rate, slightly lower college degree rate. Traditions: 77% speak other than english at home. Chinese 2nd most widely spoken language at home in the US. Majority of Asians Americans are in married couple family households 60%.
Asian Health Issues:
17.6% without health insurance. (Higher than whites 10%)
Unique health needs: Hep B chronically infects 15. million in US, AAPIs are half of all cases.
Need early identification, many don't know they have it and continue to pass it on.
Asian Education Issues:
- Less visible in highest ranks of academia
- 2.4% of higher education sr. admin positions.
- 1.5% of Univ Presidencies
- Fewer Japanese Americans fully realize earning levels that parallel their education level.
- Educational attainment for E. and S. Asian groups high.
- Native Hawaiians and PIs have lower graduation rates.
Hispanic Immigration Programs:
Immigration Reform Act of 1986: Amnesty Provision hundreds of thousands aliens applied for permanent residence.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: ended Mex-Am War in 1848. Brought TX, NM, AZ, CA into US. 75K still living in US 1 year after treaty.
Pop estimate: 118K in 1850. Millions more entered due to political upheavals in Mexico and economic opportunities in US fields/factories.
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 & Immigration Act of 1917: created shortage of manual laborers in US. US and Mexico encouraged mexicans to move to border areas for work.
1920s- over 1 million came to US- worked on farms as laborers. Depression cut jobs- 400,000 were repatriated.
Bracero Program 1942- 5 million brought to US for low wage labor on temp basis. 1954- Operation Wetback in TX. Mass deportations of illegal workers 1.1 mil returned.
90% of Spanish Speaking world =Roman Catholic
- 68% of Hispanics Roman Catholic
- 15% Born again/Evangelical Protestants
- 10% - Do not identify with any religion.
Hispanic Military Service Representation:
- 10.6% of AD Force (In general, under represented due to low levels of high school completion, relatively few have credentials to qualify for service.
- - 14.4% Navy
- - 12.5% Marines
- - 11% Army
- - 10.7% Coast Guard
- - 5.1% AF
- Largest: 16% Navy enlisted members/13% Marine Corps
- Highest % of officers: 6.5% in the Marines.
- AF lowest 3.7% officers/5.5% enlisted
8.5% of Reserve Force, largest 14.9% in the Navy
1.1 million veterans
Hispanic- Prominent Individuals
- Oscar del la Renta: Fashion designer
- Ellen Ochoa: First hispanic woman in space
- Sonia Sotomayor: Judge/Asst Justice to Supreme Court/Columbia Univ Law School lecturer.
- Carlos Santana: Musician
- Rebecca Lobo: TV basketball analyst ESPN. Gold medal in women's basketball.
Arab American: Definition
People of Arab descent; originating in North Africa and Middle East- where Arabic is the prevalent language.
People of non-Arab descent: originating from Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan. (West Asian Arab American)
Racially speaking- they are white.
West Asian Identity (Non Arab World)
Historically Arab Americans from West Asia do not have an arab origin and do not have arabic as their native language. This group includes Turkish Americans (Turkish), Iranian Americans (Farsi), and Afghans (Pashto/Dari)
Arab Identity (Non- West Asian)
Generally refers to 21 Arabic speaking countries, a member of any arabic speaking people. Territory from African Shores of the Atlantic to the Arab/Persian Gulf in Asia. Some Arabs are are Israeli citizens- but Arab World does not include Israel.
Arab American Influence on Social/Cultural Characteristics:
Education and Learning= highly valued by West Asian Arabs. History of scholarship in arab world. Attainment of wisdom for a productive live was an important goal. Common to find west Asian Arab americans in all walks of life- doctors/educators etc.
- 63% of west asian arabs have been to college
- 45% of non west asian arabs have been to college
- Overall AA Education levels:
- 17.6% no high school
- 21% high school
- 24% some college
- 36% bachelor/grad degree (HIGHEST)
Western Asian Cultural Characteristics
- Body Space: Pushing is normal
- Right to Privacy: not a concept- means being alone w/thoughts
- Facing- will always face you
- Olfaction: Smelling- common to be that close
Spirit of entrepreneurship, importance of education, families work together, higher than average median income
Arab Prominent Figures:
General John Abizaid: 34 yrs svs. West Point. 4 star in the Army. Longest serving cdr of US Central Command. Responsible for 27 countries. Currently Distingushed Chair of Combating Terrorism Center at West Point. Distinguished Fellow- Hoover institution at Stanford.
Gen George Joulwan: Army 4 star. Foreign policy experience. Commander in Chief, US European Command. 11th Supreme Allied Commander Europe. Conducted more than 20 operations. Established 1st policy for US engagement in Africa.
Lt Col Richard Haddad: US Naval academy, 7 yrs in marines, combat tours in OJC and Desert shield. COIN operations in Central America/Drug War in South America. Retired in 08.
Jewish American Definition:
- A person who is born of two jewish parents
- A person born of 1 jewish parent who raises child in judaism
- A person who adheres to Jewish religion- lives by tradition and says he/she is jewish.
- All who formally convert to judaism in any manner they find justified and regarded as legitimate by any branch of judaism.
OMB tracked by marking other in race category and adding Jewish/Jew to religious affiliation.
Dispersal of Jews
135 CE: Romans banned Judaism, forced out of palestine. concerned with maintaining judaism more than establishing a unified homeland.
- Developed into culturally distinct ethnic groups:
- - Ashkenaze Jews (E. Europe/Rusia)
- - Sephardi Jews (Spain/Portuagal/N Afica)
- - Yemenite Jews
- Migration to the US:
- 1st- 23 Jews came to US through Brazil.
- 1840- few jews in America- only 15K
1st wave- 1850-1880: German Jews
, bankers. Professionals. 250K in 1880s (European Jews)
2nd wave- 1880-1925: Russian Jews
escape executions/persecutions of jews in S. Russia after assassination of Alexander II. 90% setteld in the US or "golden land" Jews already in america feared they would stimulat eanti-semitism. 2/3 settled in NY, Chicago, Boston, Pennsylvania. Unskilled, low paying jobs. Term "Sweated labour" in garmet industry. Established union, American Socialist Party. 1920- 2 million E. European jews emigrated.
- 3rd wave: (1935-1941) Professional Jews (Hitler's Rule):
- - Refuges. Escape persecution by Nazis. Einstein, Edward Teller, etc. US immigration policy remained strict. 150K jews immigrated, middle class, middle aged, professional businessmen.
Recent: 1980- Soviet Jews. political/Economic changesin Soviet union... hundreds of thousands came to israel/america. American quota up to 40K per yr. = largest since russian jews.
Jewish Terms- Religious Traditions/Trends
Rosh Hashanah: Jewish New Year- first of the high-holy days. marks the beginning of a 10 day peroiod of penitence and spiritual renewal (Opening of the book of life)
Yom Kippur: Day of Atonement. Secon most holy day in Jewish Year. Marked by fasting and prayer as the Jew seeks forgiveness from both god and man.
Jewish: Cultural Survival
: Money hungry, dishonest and unethical, clannish, prideful/connceited, disloyal to US, loyal to Israel, cause of problems in the middle east.
: Extremism toward Jews, Neo-nazi groups. Anti Israel feelings, triggering anti semitism in US. Negative attiudes toward Israel, Jews have too much infuence
Jewish education/observance no longer a priority to 2nd generation american jews.
- Low population growth
American Indian/Alaskan Native Legislation
Indian Removal Act 1830- encourage Native Americans to voluntairly give up lands east of the mississippi river. (Corrupt) Agents forged signatures, delt with individuals unauthorized to cede land adn falsified recoreds. led to forced removal. 15K in detention caps, starved/diseased.
Dawes Act/General Allotment Act: census, alloted tribal lands to individual american indians. Intended to protect indian property rights, during land rushes but result was different. Land alloted was desert, unsuitable.
Curtis Act 1898: Reaffirmed allotment of tribal land on reservations, ended tribal sovereignty in territories. Weakened/dissolved indian territory tribal govs by abolishing tribal courts/subjecting persons to federal laws.
Indian Citizenship Act 1924: gave citizenship to AI/Ans, right to vote. Did not provide protection under bill of rights. Several declined to retain sovereign nations. Citizenship was not always seen as wonderful, no confidence in US gov.
Indian Reoganizaiton Act 1934: reinstituted rold of sovereign tribes as govs for people/lands. Ended land allotment provided strengthening of tribal govs and restoration of tribal lands/powers.
Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act 1971- setteld claim of alaskas native indian Aleut/Eskimo populaiton aboringal lands. Granting titel 16 million hectares of land ot be divided among 22o native villages/12 regional coprs.
Indian Health Care Improvement Act 1976- declared elevatin ghte health status of AI An people to a level at parity with general US population to be national policy.
American Indian Religous Concepts
The World of Spirits- Spirits are worshiped feared, respected. Inhabit living things. Guardian spirits recognized as possessing extraordinary individual spiritual power.
Mother Earth- Earth/land believed to be living breathing spiritual entity whom reverence is due. Sacred/inalienable mother to AI/ANs
Circle of Life: Everyone is related, connected within circle that eventually comes back around. The Medicine Wheel. Everything has a purpose and is intentional/nothing accident.
Ceremonies- medicine dance held once or twice a yr. before war party sent out. dream dance, for marriage/divorce/removal of mourning.
Modern Faith- church and spirtual disipline ground tribal members with internal strength. Many are Roman Catholics, with syncretism to their worship- icons eagle feathers, medicine wheel in ctr of cross. Sweat lodge (baptism).
American Indian Conflicts Facing Cultural Preservation
Conflict between cultural preservation and relocation to find work. Conflict between traditions and new opportunities causes stress/burden.
Limited employment possibilities= high unemployment in tribal villages. Homelessness for those who leave the reservation because of lack of education/employment skills.
Lack of support services- child care/transportation.
American Indian Participation in the Military
Fought in all wars: War of 1812, Civil War (scouted enemy) Spanish American War, WWI 12K stationed in france, WW2: 44K served.
Special Assignments: Code Talkers: 29 Navajos- Japanese never cracked it. Eskimo Scouts: patrolled 5K miles of coastline, defended against attack.
- Korean War - Battle experienced from WW2
- Vietnam War- 42K 90% volunteer
- Veterans- 181K veterans in 2006 (22% of population)