135 CE: Romans banned Judaism, forced out of palestine. concerned with maintaining judaism more than establishing a unified homeland.
- Developed into culturally distinct ethnic groups:
- - Ashkenaze Jews (E. Europe/Rusia)
- - Sephardi Jews (Spain/Portuagal/N Afica)
- - Yemenite Jews
- Migration to the US:
- 1st- 23 Jews came to US through Brazil.
- 1840- few jews in America- only 15K
1st wave- 1850-1880: German Jews
, bankers. Professionals. 250K in 1880s (European Jews)
2nd wave- 1880-1925: Russian Jews
escape executions/persecutions of jews in S. Russia after assassination of Alexander II. 90% setteld in the US or "golden land" Jews already in america feared they would stimulat eanti-semitism. 2/3 settled in NY, Chicago, Boston, Pennsylvania. Unskilled, low paying jobs. Term "Sweated labour" in garmet industry. Established union, American Socialist Party. 1920- 2 million E. European jews emigrated.
- 3rd wave: (1935-1941) Professional Jews (Hitler's Rule):
- - Refuges. Escape persecution by Nazis. Einstein, Edward Teller, etc. US immigration policy remained strict. 150K jews immigrated, middle class, middle aged, professional businessmen.
Recent: 1980- Soviet Jews. political/Economic changesin Soviet union... hundreds of thousands came to israel/america. American quota up to 40K per yr. = largest since russian jews.