Psych1 Ch.9-12

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Psych1 Ch.9-12
2012-11-08 00:36:40
psych test

chapters 9, 10, 11, 12
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  1. Intelligence
    is the capacity to reason, solve problems and acquire new knowledge
  2. Aptitude
    is a person's potential ability
  3. Achievement
    is a person's knowledge and progress
  4. General Intelligence
    is a common factor that underlies certain mental abilities
  5. Fluid Intellegence
    is the ability to process information and act accordingly
  6. Crystallized intelligence
    is mental ability derived from previous experience
  7. Analytic Intelligence
    is a type of intelligence generally assessed by intelligence tests that present well-defined problems with only one correct answer
  8. Creative Intelligence
    is a type of intelligence characterized by the ability to adapt to new situations, come up with unique and unusal ideas, and think of novel solutions to problems
  9. Practical Intelligence
    is the ability to find many solutions to complicated or poorly defined problems and use those solutions in practical, everyday situations
  10. Algorithm
    is a step by step procedure that a person can follow to arrive at a solution to a particular problem
  11. Functional fixedness
    is a bias that limits a person's ability to think in uncoventional ways
  12. Belief Bias
    describes the effect that occurs when a person's beliefs distort his or her logical thinking
  13. Heuristics
    are informal rules that make the decision-making process quick and simple.
  14. Filter theory
    proposes that a person selects stimuli early in the perception process, even before he or she assesses the meaning of the input
  15. Sensory buffer
    is part of the perceptual system that holds information for a short time before it is accepted or rejected by a filter
  16. Linguistic relativity hypothesis
    states that the language a person speaks influences his or her conception of reality
  17. Cross-sectional studies
    collect data from different individuals at different ages in order to track age difference
  18. Longitudinal studies
    collect data from the same individual over a period of time to track age changes
  19. Cephalocaudal rule
    is the tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from top to bottom
  20. Proximodistal rule
    is the tendency for motor sills to emerge in sequence from iside to outside
  21. Adolence
    is the period of transition from childhood to adulthood
  22. Menopause
    is the end of the menstral cycle and ability to bear children
  23. Andropause
    describes gradual sexual changes in men as they age that include declines in sperm count, testosterone level, and speed of erection and ejaculation
  24. Cognition
    consists of mental activities associated with sensation, perception, thinking, knowing remembering and communicating
  25. Schemas
    are concepts or frameworks around which people organize and interpret information
  26. assimilation
    is a process in which a person interprets new experience in terms of existing schemas
  27. zone of proximal development
    refers to the difference between what a child can do alone versus what a child can do together with a more competent person
  28. morphemes
    are the smallest meaningful units of language that represents the objects, events, ideas, characteristics and relationships in that language's vocabulary
  29. phonemes
    are elementary vowel and consonant sounds that combineto form morphemes
  30. sex
    is a person's biological classification as either male or female based on the sex chromosomes contained in his or her dna
  31. Gender
    is a set of behaviors and characteristics that define individuals as boys and men or girls and women in society
  32. Androgen insensitivity syndrome
    is a condition in which a genetically male fetus's receptors for androgens fail to function, resulting in the development of external female genitalia
  33. Gender Idenity
    is a person's sense of being a boy or a girl, man or woman
  34. Gender Idenity disorder
    is a condition in which a person feels he or she was born with the body of the wrong sex
  35. Gender Typed
    refers to boys and men who show traditionally masculine traits and behaviors, and girls and women who show traditionally femine traits and behaviors
  36. Social Learning Theory
    • learning through modeling. reinforcements and punishments.
    • emphasizes the role of cognition in motivation and the importance of expectations in shaping behavior
  37. gender schema theory
    states that the processs of gender differentiation begins at a very young age; as children develop schemas for other things around them, they also develop a schema for their gender and adjust their behavior to algin with it
  38. androgyny
    people who are nether specifically masculine or feminine
  39. sexism
    consists of prejudice and unfair treatment against men or women based on gender stereotypes
  40. imprint
    is a process of early attachment in which the first thing a newborn sees is considered its mother
  41. Gender roles
    are expectations about the way men and women behave
  42. Gender sterotypes
    is a widely held concept about a person or group of people that is based only on gender
  43. sexual orientation
    describes enduring sexual attraction toward members of our own sex, the other sex or both