NURS 131 Unit 9

Card Set Information

Author:
maricar2517
ID:
182421
Filename:
NURS 131 Unit 9
Updated:
2012-11-07 23:41:06
Tags:
Peds Respiratory
Folders:

Description:
Peds Respiratory
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user maricar2517 on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. what does the respiratory system consist of
    • nose
    • pharynx
    • trachea
    • bronchi
    • bronchioles
    • lungs
  2. what does the upper airway consist of?
    • nose
    • pharynx
    • larynx
    • trachea
  3. what does the lower airway consist of?
    • bronchi
    • bronchioles
    • lungs
  4. Pediatric respiratory differences include?
    • Smaller lower airways- 50% smaller than adults
    • Infants breathing pattern and style- infants are obligatory nose breathers and have difficulty breathing through the mouth
    • breathing rate is faster than adults
    • brief periods of apnea (10-15 secs) irregular rhythm normal in infants
    • Muscles of breathing- intercostal muscles not well developed; infants often use diaphragm, abdominal muscles
    • Lung development- lung surface increases until age 5-8; actual growth continues into adolescence
  5. Acute vs chronic respiratory illnesses
    • Acute- Bronchiolitis/RSV and pneumonia
    • Chronic- Asthma and cystic fibrosis
  6. what is bronchiolitis/RSV?
    • Inflammation/infection of the bronchioles
    • RSV-respiratory syncytial virus
  7. Bronchiolitis vs RSV
    you can have bronchiolitis w/o having RSV
  8. What to watch for in bronchiolitis/RSV
    • Respiratory difficulty- nasal flaring, retractions/use of accessory muscles, SOB, the tachys
    • Cough
    • Rhinorhea (runny nose)
    • perhaps cyanosis
    • wheezing
    • Many symptoms mirror that of the common cold
  9. what population are at greatest risk for bronchiolitis/RSV?
    • infants
    • chronically ill
    • immunocompromised
  10. what to do for bronchiolitis/RSV
    • lab testing for RSV
    • antibiotic therapy- only if there is underlying pneumonia or bacterial infection
    • suction as necessary-with small tube to clear nasal passageway
    • oxygentation as necessary
    • fluid volume maintenance as necessary
    • Cool humidification to slow down respirations
  11. Types of pneumonia
    • aspiration- object swallowed and goes down wrong tube
    • viral- most common, easy to get
    • bacterial
    • many others- usually attached to/triggered by other respiratory infections (colds, RSV/bronchiolitis)
  12. what to watch for in pneumonia
    • fever
    • cough-may be productive
    • respiratory distress-retractions, nasal flaring, possibly cyanosis
    • behavioral changes- irritability, restlessness, or lethargy depending on severity
    • may have GI symptoms- vomiting, excessive tiredness
  13. what are you going to do for pneumonia
    • depends of factors
    • where its treated
    • what kind of pneumonia
    • causative agent
    • if bacterial-give antibiotics
    • if aspiration- treat symptoms and give antibiotics
  14. Respiratory support for pnwumonia
    • supplementary O2
    • secretion management
    • chest physiotherapy
  15. pharmalogical support for pneumonia
    • depends on causative organism or problem
    • maybe antibiotics
    • IV fluids
    • trial of albuterol/racemic epinephrine (not always effective)
  16. Aasthma/RAD (reactive airway disorder)
    • most common chronic disease of childhood
    • primary cause of school absences
    • major proportion of admissions to ED and hospitals
    • prevalence, morbidity and mortaility rates increasing
    • can be casued by pets, dust, environment
  17. what happens in asthma/RAD
    • airway inflammation/associated with swelling
    • bronchospasm
    • airway obstruction
  18. triggers for asthma/RAD
    • allergens
    • irritants-smoke
    • exercise
    • changes in weather/temp
    • acute respiratory infections
    • animals
    • GERD
    • foods
    • emotions/fear
    • medications (NSAIDS, aspirin, antibiotics)
    • endocrine factors-mensses, pregnancy, thyroid disease
  19. what to watch for in asthma/RAD
    • cough
    • respiratory distress
    • behavioral changes
    • tripod breathing position
    • difficulty speaking
    • wheezing
    • prolonged respiratory phase
    • skin color changes
  20. what is PFT?
    Pulmonary Function Test
  21. what is PEF
    Peak expiratory flow
  22. what is PEFR
    Peak expiratory flow rate

    •Maximum air forcefully exhaled in 1 second
  23. what is PEFM?
    Peak expiratory flow machine (measures PEF)
  24. what is FEV?
    Forced expiratory volume
  25. Severity classifications of asthma/RAD
    • –Step 1 (mild intermittent)-symptoms fewer than 2 wks; frequent nighttime symptoms
    • –Step 2 (mild persistent)- symptoms more than 2x a wk but less than 1x a day;
    • –Step 3 (moderate persistent)-daily symptoms; nighttime symptoms- 3-4x a month
    • –Step 4 (severe persistent)-continual symptoms throughout the day
  26. what to do fro asthma/RAD
    • Respiratory support- supplemental O2
    • Pharmacologic support- bronchodilators and β-adrenergic agonists (rescue medications, long-term medications) and corticosteroids
    • Education
    • Emotional support
  27. what is cystic fibrosis?
    • –An inherited autosomal recessive trait
    • –An exocrine gland problem- affects everything
    • •produces excess amt of thick secretions from exocrine glands
    • •Can block pancreatic ducts
    • •Affects lungs
    • –Mutated gene
    • •Long arm of chromosome 7
  28. what is involved in cystic fibrosis?
    • –Exocrine gland dysfunction
    • –Increased viscosity of secretions
    • –Increased electrolyte levels in sweat
    • –Abnormalities in autonomic nervous system function
  29. Primary systems invloved in cystic fibrosis
    • –Respiratory
    • –Gastrointestinal
    • –Endocrine/exocrine
  30. more about cystic fibrosis
    • •Most commonly in hospital for respiratory
    • dysfunction
    • •“CF cleanout”-shake out excess fluids
    • •CF-related diabetes
    • •Mucous and MDRO
    • •Will need to be on antibiotics
    • •Lung sounds-diminished bases
    • •Diagnosed early
  31. what to watch for in cystic fibrosis
    • –Wide variety in breath sounds
    • •diminished
    • •crackles
    • •rales
    • –Dyspnea
    • –Respiratory distress
    • –Cough
    • –Secretions
    • •Different colors-can be yellow, green
    • •VERY thick
  32. what to watch for in cystic fibrosis
    • –Sometimes barrel chest
    • –Clubbed fingers from lack of oxygen
    • –Appetite
    • •Voracious early
    • •May be really hungry or not eat at all
    • •Loss\late
    • –OFTT
    • •Organic failure to thrive
    • –Vitamin deficiency-cannot absorb nutrients
    • •A, D, E, K
  33. more to watch for in cystic fibrosis
    • –Anemia
    • –Weight loss
    • –Large, bulky, loose, frothy, foul-smelling stools
    • –May also see constipation
    • –Liver, gall bladder, pancreas issues
    • –Increase of symptoms as progression through disease occurs
  34. what to do for cystic fibrosis
    • –Respiratory support
    • •SupplementalO2
    • •Chest physiotherapy-cupping, vest
    • •Different machines
    • –Pharmacological interventions
    • •Bronchodilators
    • •Antibiotics
    • •Supplemental gastric enzymes-help with digestion
    • •Vitamin supplements
    • –Emotional support
    • –Dietary support
    • •Encourage dietary intake
    • •High fat, high calorie diet
    • •LOTS of snacks
    • •Problems with diabetes and diet

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview