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2012-11-08 02:55:04
Psych 260

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  1. Degeneration of brain orexin neurons causes narcolepsy.t or f
  2. Which of the following is true of histamine?
    Waking is increased by infusion of histamine into the basal forebrain.
  3. A single cycle of non-REM/REM sleep lasts about
    90 minutes.
  4. Narcolepsy is a considered to be a neurological disorder in that
    narcoleptics generally enter REM sleep directly from the waking state.
  5. REM sleep facilitates the consolidation of non-declarative memory. t or f
  6. Secretion of orexin within the _______ produces ______.
    REM-OFF area; wakefulness
  7. A person whose brain waves contain high-amplitude delta waves is most likely
    in either stage 3 or 4 of slow-wave sleep.
  8. Healthy subjects who spent six weeks resting in bed exhibited
    no change in REM or slow-wave sleep patterns.
  9. The transition between wakefulness and sleep is marked by the appearance of ________ waves in the sleep record.
  10. Damage to the ventrolateral preoptic area would be expected to
    produce insomnia.
  11. Night terrors are most likely to occur during
    stage 4 of slow-wave sleep.
  12. The neurons that turn off REM sleep are located in the
    ventrolateral PAG.
  13. Noradrenergic agonist drugs produce arousal and decrease sleep.
  14. A full day of tourist activities at Disneyland would be expected to
    increase the amount of time spent that night in slow-wave sleep.
  15. The neurons that turn on REM sleep are located in the
  16. ________ is a sleep disorder that involves a buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood during sleep.
    Sleep apnea
  17. The rebound phenomenon noted after deprivation of REM sleep suggests that
    there is a physiological need for a certain amount of REM sleep.
  18. An electro-oculogram measures
    eye movements.
  19. Sleep stages 1–4 are termed ________, whereas stages 3–4 are referred to as ________.
    non-REM sleep; slow-wave sleep
  20. Symptoms of narcolepsy involving REM sleep (such as cataplexy) are effectively treated by drugs that
  21. Sleep stages 3 and 4 are characterized by delta activity.
  22. Which of the following are true of neurons within the ventrolateral preoptic area (vlPOA)?
    Electrical stimulation of vlPOA neurons produces signs of drowsiness.
  23. Which of the following is not a disorder of slow-wave sleep?
  24. The primary symptom of narcolepsy is
    sleeping at inappropriate times.
  25. The major disorder suffered by Michael, the subject of the chapter prologue, was
  26. Stages of sleep are easily distinguished by
    changes in the electrical activity of the brain.
  27. Signs of cortical arousal in the EEG are reduced by
    acetylcholine antagonists.
  28. The high presence of
    delta waves in normally active brain areas suggests that the primary
    function of stage 4 of slow-wave sleep is to
    rest the brain.
  29. A serious issue associated with sleeping medications is that
    the use of sleeping pills can lead to daytime grogginess.
  30. The ________ brain wave pattern has a characteristic frequency of ________.
    theta; 3.5–7.5 Hz
  31. Narcolepsy is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT
  32. Caffeine promotes wakefulness because it is a(n)
    adenosine antagonist.
  33. Insomnia is defined
    in relation to a person's particular need for sleep.
  34. Narcolepsy in dogs is
    produced by a mutation of the hypocretin gene.
  35. A person who exhibits sudden paralysis while remaining conscious may be suffering from
    an episode of cataplexy.
  36. Sleep stages 3 and 4 are also called
    slow-wave sleep.
  37. Which of the following is true of the sleep cycle during a night of sleep?
    As the night goes on, the relative length of REM sleep increases in each successive cycle.
  38. The firing rates of cells within the locus coeruleus
    decrease during sleep and increase at awakening.
  39. The vlPOA is key region for the initiation of sleep.
  40. Microdialysis studies indicate that cortical beta wave activity is related to its levels of ________ within the ________.
    acetylcholine; frontal cortex
  41. Which of the following is absent during REM sleep?
    EEG synchrony
  42. The cell bodies of most serotonin neurons are located within the
    raphe nuclei.
  43. Sleep is a behavior.
  44. Cataplexy may be brought on by
    strong emotions or physical exertion.
  45. Disruption of the hypocretin gene produces symptoms of narcolepsy.
  46. The appearance of rapid eye movements in the sleep record is an indicator of
    paradoxical sleep.
  47. The notion that sleep or wakefulness is regulated by a substance that circulates within the blood is
    unlikely, given that the cerebral hemispheres of a dolphin sleep at different times.
  48. Activation of adenosine receptors may increase sleep by
    inhibition of neurons that normally inhibit the vlPOA.
  49. The primary function of slow-wave sleep is to
    permit the brain to rest.
  50. A primary effect of sleep deprivation in humans is
    perceptual distortions.
  51. Administration of a(n) ________ would be expected to promote sleep.
    adenosine agonist
  52. The primary symptom of REM-sleep behavior disorder is(are)
    the ability of a person to move during REM sleep.
  53. The metabolism of glycogen increases the brain levels of ________, which in turn promotes ________.
    adenosine; slow-wave sleep
  54. An example of ________ is a person who dreams while lying awake, but is temporarily paralyzed.
    hypnagogic hallucinations
  55. According to Saper, mutual inhibition of the vlPOA by cells of the locus coeruleus and raphe nuclei may result in
    the alternation between sleep and waking states.
  56. Signs of cortical arousal in the EEG are induced by
    acetylcholine agonists.
  57. Somnambulism is synonymous with
  58. Hypocretin neurons are active during ________ but inactive during ________.
    normal waking; sleep
  59. The ________ pattern of EEG activity is characterized by irregular, high-frequency (13–30 Hz), low-amplitude waves.
  60. Activation of ________ cells within the ________ produces arousal and reduced sleep.
    noradrenergic; locus coeruleus
  61. The key symptom of narcolepsy is
    an attack of sleep during the day.
  62. Sleep attacks are effectively treated by drugs that