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What are some common causes of AIRF?
- Nephrotoxic nephrosis
- Ischemic nephrosis
Do NSAIDs directly damage the kidney?
No, vasoconstriction occurs as consequence of volume depletion
What two things simultaneously can dramatically increase risk of renal injury?
- Exposure to nephrotoxins
- Renal ischemia
During maintenance phase of AIRF, what must you do?
Quantify urine production to avoid overhydration
What is the definitive test for AIRF?
There is none
What urinalysis findings support AIRF?
- Glucosuria w/ normal blood glucose
What type of urine sediment supports a diagnosis for ethylene glycol poisoning?
Increased #s of oxalate crystals
Can you use the magnitude of azotemia to determine AIRF vs. CRF?
In AIRF and CRF how do the kidneys appear on ultrasound?
- Can be normal in size and appearance
- May have increased echogenicity (cortex)
What is needed to successfully manage a patient with severe baseline azotemia during the maintenance phase of AIRF?
What are the main reasons animals with AIRF die or are euthanized?
- Metabolic acidosis
- Severe azotemia
What is the lethal dose of ethylene glycol in dogs and cats?
- Dog - 4.4 ml/kg
- Cat - 1.5 ml/kg
How long does it take after ingestion for ethylene glycol to be undetectable in plasma?
How do you definitively treat ethylene glycol poisoning?
How quickly must you treat dogs and cats with ethanol for ethylene glycol poisoning?
Withing 2-4 hours of ingestion
What is the TOC for ethylene glycol poisoning?
When does the prognosis for a dog and cat become guarded to grave in ethylene glycol poisoning?
- dog - >8 hours
- cat - >3 hours
What is the most common cause of CRF in dogs?
Chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis of unknown cause
What mechanisms contribute most to progression of chronic kidney disease?
- Hypertension (intraglomerular)
What are the four stages of canine chronic kidney disease according to mg/dL of creatinine?
- I - <1.4
- II - 1.4-2.0
- III - 2.1-5.0
- IV - >5.0
What are the four stages of feline chronic kidney disease according to mg/dL of creatinine?
- I - <1.6
- II - 1.6-2.8
- III - 2.9-5.0
- IV - >5.0
Dogs with what two conditions in CKD will die more quickly?
What treatment of CKD is overall most important?
Dietary phosphorous restriction
What is the most commonly used intestinal Pi binder in vet med?
When should eryhropoietin be considered in treating CKD?
When dogs and cats have PCV <20%
What is the most common cause of lower urinary tract signs in cats?
What is the significance of crystalluria in cats with no clinical signs?
If a cat is less than 10 years, how common are bacterial lower urinary tract infections?
What is the most likely etiology of idiopathic cystitis?
What role does diet play in idiopathic cystitis?
Dry food increases occurence
How does urinary calculi most commonly appear on radiographs in cats?
Radiopaque (calcium oxalate and struvite)
What is the single most important dietary change that can be made with cats with idiopathic cystitis?
Increase total water intake