SA Med Q2, I

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HLW
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182464
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SA Med Q2, I
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2012-11-08 07:35:39
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SA Med Q2
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SA Med Q2, I
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  1. What is the most common cause of proteinuria?
    Lower Urinary Tract problem
  2. What is the hallmark of glomerular disease?
    • Proteinuria
    • Inactive sediment
  3. What is the classical definition of nephrotic syndrome?
    • Proteinuria
    • Hypoalbuminemia
    • Hypercholesterolemia
    • Edema and/or ascites
  4. What type of selective barrier is the glomerulus?
    • Size
    • Charge
  5. What is the cause of most cases of immune complex glomerulonephritis?
    Idiopathic
  6. What breeds of dogs does membranoproliferative GN have a predilection for?
    • Soft-coated Wheaten terriers
    • Bernese Mountain Dogs
    • Brittany Spaniels
  7. What breeds of dogs does basement membrane disorders of the glomerulus have a predilection for?
    • English cocker spaniels
    • Samoyeds
    • Doberman pinchers and bull terriers
  8. What breeds of dogs have a predilection for familial reactive systemic amyloidosis?
    • Shar pei
    • Beagle
    • English Foxhound
  9. What breeds of cats have a predilection for familial reactive systemic amyloidosis?
    • Abyssinian
    • Siamese
    • Oriental shorthair
  10. Where does amyloid usually deposit in the kidneys of dogs and horses?
    Glomerular deposits
  11. Where does amyloid usually deposit in the kidneys of cats and cows?
    Medullary
  12. What do shar pei dogs with amyloidosis usually have a history of?
    • Recurrent acute self-limiting fever
    • Tibiotarsal joint swelling
  13. What is the best way to distinguish renal amyloidosis from GN?
    Renal biopsy
  14. What are the six possible presentations of glomerular disease?
    • CRF signs
    • Signs of infection, inflammation, neoplasm
    • Proteinuria
    • Nephrotic syndrome
    • Thromboembolism
    • Sudden blindness
  15. What are the most common physical findings related to chronic renal failure?
    • Poor haircoat and body condition
    • Dehydration
    • small irregular kidneys
  16. When is a urine protein/creatinine ratio unreliable?
    In the presence of pyuria and severe hematuria
  17. On average, the highest UPC ratios are seen in?
    Glomerular amyloidosis
  18. What urine value has an increased prevalence that increases with age?
    Microalbuminuria
  19. What is the most sensitive test to detect proteinuria?
    Microalbuminuria
  20. What is the best treatment option for glomerulonephritis?
    ACE inhibitors (Enalopril)
  21. How do ACE inhibitors decrease glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure?
    By decreasing post-glomerular arteriolar resistance (efferent arterioles)
  22. What can be used in dogs with GN to inhibit platelet aggregation?
    Low dose aspirin therapy
  23. What can be used to suppress glomerular inflammation and coagulation in GN?
    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
  24. What drug is recommended for shar pei dogs with amyloidosis suffering from recurrent febrile attacks?
    Colchicine
  25. What does increasing dietary protein do to dogs suffering from hypoalbuminemia due to GN?
    Only worsens urinary protein loss
  26. Why is nephrotic syndrome a hypercoaguable state?
    Loss of anti-thrombin III in urine (Fibrinogen > 300 mg/dl and AT III < 70% of normal)
  27. What percentage of dogs with glomerular dz get hypertension?
    50-80%
  28. What is the main reason dogs with renal amyloidosis and GN die?
    Thromboembolic events
  29. Does oliguria and anuria have to be present to have AIRF?
    NO
  30. What is the first detectable sign of AIRF?
    Sub-maximal urine concentration
  31. What are typical findings in the urine sediment of severe AIRF in the early stages?
    Renal tubular epithelial casts
  32. Does dialysis make difference in treating AIRF?
    Yes, especially if started early
  33. If a dog has azotemia due to AIRF caused by ethylene glycol, what is most likely to happen?
    Death or euthanized
  34. If a dog has azotemia due to AIRF caused by Leptospirosis, what is most likely to happen?
    Survive
  35. Treatment of what drug will cause a more rapid recovery in AIRF caused by Lepto?
    Amlodipine

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