Card Set Information
what is the basic functional unit of the human body
the cell are the basic and anatamical unit of the body
what is the formation of the cell membrane?
it is a phospholipid bi-layer embedded with protein
what are the functions of the intergraded proteins on the membrane?
these proteins can act as receptors channels, pumps, or transporters
what is the nuclear envelope
it's a double nuclear membrane (outter and inner) which seperates the nucleus from the cytoplasm. it contains pores which control the movement of substances in and out of the nucleus.
what materials contain in the nucleus
it contains DNA arranged in chromosomes
what is euchromatin?
more extended from (light) DNA, which is potentially transcriptionally active
what is heterochromatin?
highly condensed (dark) and transcrptionally inactive
where is protein transcription happen?
in the nucleoli
what form chromatin complex?
Chromatin is a complex of DNA, Histone proteins, nonhistone proteins
what do diploid, haploid,polyploidy, & aneuploid mean?
Diploid-a pair or 2 sets of of homologous chromosomes
Haploid- one set of chromosomes
polyploidy- containe more than 2 sets of homologous chromosomes
aneuploid- have atypical chromosomal numbers
what are cytoskeletons?
microfilaments, microtubules, & intermediate filaments
what types of cytoskeletons have motor proteins?
microfilaments and microtubules
what is the main function of the mitochondrium?
provides energy, ATP, that enables neighbor cells to work and body to function
what cell organelle responses for protein synthesis?
the Rough endoplasmic reticulum
what does the golgi apperatus do?
recieves synthetic product from the ER, modifies them, and exports them to a variety of destinations
what is the main function of lysosome?
the contain enzymes that are required for the degrading of proteins and other organelles
what is the main function of ribosomes?
protein synthesis. Ribosomes also move on the mRNA from 5 to 3
what is the main function of peroxisomes?
synthesis and degregation of hydrogen
bile acid synthesis
how many cell junctions are there?
there are 4 cell junctions
which of the cell junction has communication between the cells?
what is the main function of the microvilli?
they function to increase the cell surface are available for absorption
what is the main function of cilia?
move back and forth to propel fluid and particles in one direction. important in clearing mucus from the resiratory tract
what is the cell cycle?
process of division (mitosis) where the cell will divide into 2 identicle parts, one for each daughter cell
what does G0 stand for?
phase in which cells are dormat or not dividing
what does G1 stand for?
also known as gap 1 but is the first stage of interphase
what does S stand for?
Stands for synthesis. DNA is replicated
what does M stand for?
what are the functional divisions of the nervous system?
sensory and motor
what are the anatomical divisions of the nervous system?
CNS & PNS
which functional division is for autonomic nervous system?
Motor. ANS provides autonomic regulation of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glandular activity or secretions
what is the difference between the nerve and the tract?
Nerve located in the PNS. They establish communication between brain and spinal cord centers and the sense organs and effectors
tracts located as fibers in PNS. axon bundles running in the spinal cord and brain. contain either sensory or motor signals
what is the difference between the ganglion and nucleus?
group of similar neurons associate with connective tissue in the PNS is called ganglio
group of similar neurons in the CNS is called nucleus
what kind of neuronal information do the dorsal and ventral roots carry seperatly?
Dorsal root carries sensory information to the spinal cord. Ventral root carries motor commands away from the spinal cord.
what type of neurons is contained in the dorsal horn?
dominated by sensory neurons
what type of neurons is contained in the ventral horns?
contains alpha and gamma motor neurons
what are the 4 distinctive regions of a neuron?
dendrite, axon, soma, and terminal
what is the main function of the soma?
metabolic center of the cell
what are the nissil bodies?
highly developed ER that plays a role in protein synthesis
what is the main function of the dendrite?
extends the cell body, they are the points at which nerve impulses are recieved by the cell
what is the main function of the axon?
transmits impulses at the distal end
what is the main function of the terminal?
it is where nerve connection is formed
where are the neurotransmitters synthesized?
synthesized within the axon terminal
how does a neuron recieve information?
through the dendrite
how does a neuron send information?
it sends info through the axon
what is the action potential?
process in which the electrical membrane potential of a cell rapidly rises and falls
on which parts of the neuron does the action potential occur?
the junction gaps between the cell body and axon known as the hillock
what is the axonal transportation?
transportation of macromolecules from and to the cell body to the synapses
is the axonal transportation the same as the action potential?
no. axonal transportation takes place inside the axon and action potential takes place at the hillock
where does the axonal transportation happen?
inside the Axon
where is the axohillock?
located at a junction between the cell body and the axon itself
where is the beginning of the action potential?
it is initiated at the hillock
what structure is formed by the terminal?
what is the presynaptic membrane?
the part of the cell membrane of an axon terminal that faces the cell membrane of the meuron or muscle fiber with which the axon terminal establishes a synapse
what substance will release from the terminal? to where?
releases electrical impulses from one neuron to the next
what are the typical types of neurons?
sensory, motor, & interneurons
where do you expect to see bipolar neurons?
in the sensory pathways (for sight smell hearing and balance)
where are the typical pseudounipolarneurons?
Dosal Root Ganglion. the primary general sensory neurons are usually
where are the typical multipolar neurons?
in the motor neurons. most common.
what is the name of chemicals released by neurons?
based on different neurotransmitters released, such as cholinergic neurons.
what forms a myelin sheath in the PNS?
Schwann cell, one cell one segment one axon; one axon multi cells
what forms the myelin sheath in the CNS?
Oolgodendrocyte, one cell multi sheath; different branches of one cell can envelope segments of several axons.
what is the node of Ranvier?
Gaps along the pathway of myeline sheath
how many typical types of synapses
there are 3. Axosomatic (2nd most commn)
Axodendritic (Most common)
Axoaxonic junction (rare)
describe 3 coverings of a nerve
nerves have external fibrous coat of dense conn. tissue (epineurium)
each bundle is surrounded by the perineurium
within the perineurium sheath run the schwann cell and their enveloping connective tissue,(Endoneurium)
what are the Glia?
more abundant in the brain than in the neurons. play a metabolic and supporting role for the neurons
does glia transmit the action potential?
what is the main function of astrocyte?
they bind neurons to capillaries and the the pia matter. they also initiate the formation of the blood brain barrier
where are the epedymal cells?
they are cells which line the ventricles of the brain?
which type of glia participate in the blood brain barrier?
how many types of muscles are there?
what are the characteristics of skeletal muscles?
it is sarcolemma
they are striated, with bands of muscle fibers made of actin and myosin
what are the characteristics of smooth muscles?
microscopically smooth, with irregular bundles
may be innervated by one nerve or multiple nerves, depending on function
what are the characterisitcs of the cardiac muscle?
straited like skeletal
the striation join together in bundles that allow coordinated action
involuntary and autorhythmic
what is slow twitch muscle fibers?
fatigue resistant fibers. generate ATP aerobically
what is fast twitch muscle fiber?
somewhat fatigue reistant, and generate ATP aerobically
type 11B are fatigable fibers. generate ATP anerobically
what is the neuromuscular joint?
the place where the nerve meets the muscle or another nerve
what is a motor unit
innervation of the motor neuron. composed of a motor neuron and the muscle fibers it supplies
what forms the striate in the skeletal muscle?
it has striated apperance because of the repeating structure of the muscle. there are many myofibrils, each one of which is made up of repeating units called muscle sarcomeres
what forms intercalated discs in cardiac muscles?
intercalated discs represent junctional complexes between adjacent cardiac muscles. made up of fascia adherentes, desmosome, and gap junction
which type of muscles has the least capacity of regeneration?
cardiac muscle has no regenerative capacity. damage in the heart muscle are replaced by the connective tissue, forming myocardial scars
what is purkinjes fiber?
they are fiber branches that extend from the artioventricular bundles. relays cardiac impulses to the ventricular cells causing the ventricles to contract.