chapter 6

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rpm2d
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182507
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chapter 6
Updated:
2012-11-08 14:10:22
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skeleton system
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ch6 skeleton system
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  1. skeletal system is composed of
    • bones
    • joints
    • cartilage
    • ligaments
  2. five functions of the skeletal system
    • support and protect
    • body movement
    • storage area for minerals (phosphorus, calcium)
    • production of blood cells
  3. four classifications of bones based on shape
    • long bone
    • short bone
    • flat bone
    • irregular bone
    •  
  4. long bone
    • humerous
    • radius
    • ulna
    • femur
    • tibia
    • fibula
  5. short bone
    • carpals bone of the wrist
    • tarsal bones of the foot
    •  
  6. flat bones
    • sternum
    • ribs
    • scapula
    • ilium
    • outer cranial bones
  7. irregular bones
    • ischium
    • pubis
    • veretebrae
    • inner cranial
  8. two types of bone tissue
    • compact bone
    • spongy/cancellous bone
  9. where is the compact bone primarily found
    • the shafts of long bones
    • on the outer layer of other bones
  10. where is spongy bone primarily found
    • ends of long bones
    • center of all other bones
  11. two primary functions of spongy bone
    • decrease the weight of bones
    • contain red bone marrow
  12. ossification
    formation of bone
  13. mature bone cells are called
    osteocytes
  14. osteoblast
    bone building cells
  15. osteoclast
    cells that break down bone
  16. function of articular cartilage
    decrease friction within a joint
  17. three types of joints based on the degree of movement
    • fibrous joints
    • cartilaginous
    • synovial
  18. fibrous joints
    immovable joints
  19. cartilaginous joints
    slighty movable joints
  20. synaovial joints
    freely movable joints
  21. six types of synovial joints
    • ball and socket
    • hinge
    • condyloid
    • pivot
    • gliding
    • saddle
  22. ball and socket joint
    shoulder and hip joints
  23. hinge joints
    elbow and phalanges
  24. condyloid joint
    joint between the metacarpal and first phalange of the fingers and jaw joint
  25. pivot joints
    joints between the vertebrae and proximal humerus/radius joint
  26. gliding joints
    joints between the carpals
  27. saddle joint
    carpomentacarpal joint of the thumb
  28. flexion movement
    bending of a joint that decreases the angle between the bones
  29. extension movement
    bending of a joint that increases the angle between the bones
  30. hyperextension
    overextending joint beyond its normal extended positions
  31. abduction movement
    away from the midline of the body
  32. adduction movement
    toward the midline of the body
  33. plantar flexion
    bending the foot downward
  34. doris flexion
    bending foot up
  35. inversion
    turning the sole of the foot inward
  36. eversion
    turning the sole of the foot outward
  37. supination
    turning the palm up
  38. pronation
    turning the palm down
  39. axial skeleton
    framework of the head and trunk
  40. appendicular skeleton
    framework for the shoulders, hips, and extremities
  41. the skull is divided into
    • cranium
    • facial bones
  42. maxilla
    upper jaw bone
  43. mandible
    lower jaw bone
  44. sternum
    breastbone
  45. parts of the sternum
    • manubrium
    • body
    • xiphoid
  46. manubrium
    superior portion of the sternum
  47. sternum body
    middle portion
  48. xphoid
    inferior portion of the sternum
  49. how many pairs of ribs are there
    12 pairs
  50. pairs of true ribs
    7 pairs (1-7)
  51. pairs of false ribs
    5 pairs (8-12)
  52. floating ribs
    rib pairs 11 and 12 have no anterior attachment
  53. vertebral column is composed of
    • cervical
    • thoracic
    • lumbar
    • sacrum
    • coccyx
  54. cervical vertebrae
    7
  55. thoracic vertebrae
    12
  56. lumbar vertebrae
    5
  57. sacrum
    5 fused bones
  58. coccyx
    4 or 5 fused bones
  59. kyphosis
    exaggeration of the thoracic curve (hunchback)
  60. lordosis
    excessive lumbar curve (swayback)
  61. scoliosis
    lateral curvature of the spine
  62. first cervical vertebrae
    atlas supports the head
  63. second cervical vertebrae
    axis acts as a pivot
  64. bones of the shoulder girdle
    • clavicle
    • scapula
  65. bone of the upper arm
    humerus
  66. lateral bone of the forearm
    radius
  67. medial bone of the forearm
    ulna
  68. bones of the wrist
    carpals
  69. bones of the hands
    metacarpals
  70. bones of the fingers and toes
    phalanges
  71. hip bones
    coxal
  72. three parts of the coxal bones
    • illium
    • ishcium
    • pubis
  73. thigh bone
    femur
  74. kneecap
    patella
  75. shin bone
    tibia and is the medial bone of the lower leg
  76. lateral position bone of the lower leg
    fibula
  77. bones of the ankle
    tarsals
  78. bones of the foot
    metarsals
  79. heel bone
    calcaneous

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