102 exam 4

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jujeebe
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182516
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102 exam 4
Updated:
2012-11-08 13:34:11
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microbio exam
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MB 102 EXAM 4
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  1. buffers (3)
    • salt of phosphate 
    • peptone
    • amino acids
  2. more tolerant of pH extremes - bacteria or fungi?
    fungi
  3. plasmolysis
    osmotic water loss of bacteria in hypertonic environment
  4. plasmolysis exceptions?
    • extreme halophiles 
    • facultative halophiles
  5. extreme halophile example
    halobacterium
  6. chemical requirements for growth? (3)
    • oxygen
    • nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorus
    • trace elements
  7. rhizobum
    Nitrogen fixin bacterium associated with legumes (soybeans, peas, lentil)
  8. quanternary ammonium componds (quats)
    • microbial chemical method of control
    • most effective against gram + bacteria, many fungi & amoebas, many viruses
    • NOT effective against gram - bacteria
    • MOA: disrupts plasma membrane
  9. synthetic antimicrobial drugs (3)
    • Ethambutol
    • Isoniazid
    • Sulfonamides/Sulfa Drugs
  10. Ethambutol (synthetic)
    • against Mycobacterium
    • inhibits cellular metabolites
  11. Izoniazid (synthetic)
    • against Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    • inhibits mycolic acid synthesis (cell wall)
    • used w. rifapin or ethambutol (synergism)
  12. sulfa drugs
    • bacteriostatic
    • inhibit folic acid synthesis for nucleic acids
  13. antibiotics
    naturally occuring chemicals produced by some bacteria and fungi
  14. Penicillins
    • core structure: beta-lactam ring 
    • natural (G and V): effective against = gram + cocci and bacilli, spirochetes that cant produce pencillinases
  15. problems with natural penicillins
    • narrow spectrum of activity 
    • susceptibility to penicillinases (cleave beta lactam rings)
  16. semisynthetic penicillins (3)
    • broaden activity
    • resist penicillinases
    • ex: ampicillin
    • amoxycillian
    • methicillin
  17. Cephalosporins
    • similar to penicillins (inhibit cell wall synthesis)
    • good if allergic to penicillin
    • resist penicillinases
    • effective against some gram - bugs
  18. Cephalosporins example (1)
    cephalothin : against pseudomonas aeruginosa
  19. carbapenamens
    • relatively new, broad spectrum 
    • inhibit cell wall synthesis 
  20. carbapenamens example(1)
    primaxin - effective against 98 % orgs from hospital pts
  21. tetracycline - produced from what bacteria?
    streptomyces
  22. tetracycline - MOA
    inhibit protein synthesis - ribosomes
  23. tetracycline - high doses cause
    diarrhea, nausea, teeth blackening in children, liver & kidney damage
  24. tetracycline- effective against?
    • gram + and - bacteria
    • rickettsias
    • chlamydiae
    • mycoplasmas
  25. semisynthetic tetracycline
    deoxycycline - retained in body longer
  26. aminoglycosides - produced by what bacteria
    streptomyces spp.
  27. aminoglycosides -MOA
    inhibit protein synthesis
  28. aminoglycosides - problems (2)
    • microbial resistance
    • patient side effects
  29. aminoglycosides examples (4)
    • streptomycin
    • neomycin
    • tobramycin
    • gentamicin (against proteus, escherichia, klebsiella)
  30. polypeptides - what bacteria produces? two examples?
    • bacillus spp.
    • ex: bacitracin, polymyxin B
  31. polymyxin B = polypeptide (bacillus spp.)
    against gram - bugs (psuedomonas spp)
  32. bacitracin = polypeptide (bacillus spp.)
    • inhibit cell wall synthesis, topically
    • against staphs, streps, some gram - like Neisseria spp.
  33. Vancomycin - MOA
    inhibits cell wall synthesis
  34. vancomycin
    • chemically unrelated to other antibiotics
    • toxic to pts and hard to administer
    • narrow spectrum of activity
    • works WELL against MRSA

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