psyc 2301 ch 5

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hollyeb
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182518
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psyc 2301 ch 5
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2012-11-08 13:52:39
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general psychology
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pysc 2301 ch5
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  1. learning
    • enduring change in either...
    • a. behavior
    • b. mental representations as a result of experience
  2. Behavioral psychologist
    • focus on how behavior changes as a result of experience
    • believe we cant measure mental states, but we can measure behavior
    • the mind is a blank slate (ie: at birth the mind is blank)
    • focus on stimulus-response learning
  3. Cognitive psychologists
    focus on how mental representations change as a result of experience
  4. behaviorist believe...
    • that behavior is the one thing we can measure
    • all we can measure is whats gong into the brain ie stimulus and what comes out ie response
    • refer to the mind as a black box
  5. Ivan Pavlov
    • classical conditioning
    • taught dogs to assocate bell with food
    • frequency of ass.
    • timing of ass.
    • spontaneous recovery
    • stimulus generalization/discrimination
  6. John Watson
    • first to apply classical conditioning to humans
    • baby albert, loud noise & white rat with fear
  7. Edward Thorndike
    • known for operant conditioning
    • trial & error with cat box and string
    • Thorndikes Law of effect (trial & error learning)
    • tends to take a long time
  8. BF Skinner
    • known for operant conditioning
    • reinforcements & punishments
    • believed reinforcement more effective than punishment
    • lion trained to jump through fire hoop
  9. classical conditioning
    only allows us to manipulate or control the activation of a behavior that the animal is already performing
  10. operant conditioning
    • needed to acquire more complex behavior
    • Edward Thorndike
    • BF Skinner
    • trial and error learning
    • reinforcements & punishments
  11. reinforcements
    • experiences that increase the likelihood that a particular bahavior will occur again in the future
    • positive reinforcements
    • negative reinforcements
  12. punishments
    • experiences that decrease the likelihood that a particular behavior will occur again
    • positive punishments
    • negative punishments
  13. positive reinforcements
    increases the likelihood of a particular behavior by adding a stimulus
  14. negative reinforcements
    • increases the likelihood of a particular behavior by taking away a stimulus
    • two types: avoidance learning & escape learning
  15. avoidance learning
    works by taking away an aversive stimuli before it occurs
  16. escape learning
    works by taking away an aversive stimulus that is already happening
  17. positive punishment
    decreases the likelihood of a particular behavior by adding a stimulus
  18. negative punishment
    decreases the likelihood of a particular behavior by taking away a stimulus
  19. shaping via reinforcements
    • 2 main schedules of reinforcement
    • -continuous reinforcement
    • -partial reinforcement
  20. continuous reinforcement
    • consists of rewarding every instance of the correct behavior
    • more effective when training new task
    • very susceptible to extention
    • start witn contiuous finish with partial
  21. partial reinforcement
    • consists of inconsistenly rewarding the correct behavior (every other time)
    • 4 types
    • -fixed ratio, variable ratio, fixed interval, variable interval
  22. fixed ratio
    • only reward after a fixed number of correct behaviors
    • ie: FR-20
  23. variable ratio
    • only reward after an average number of correct behaviors
    • ie: VR-5
  24. fixed interval
    • only reward correct behavior after a fixed amount of time has elapsed
    • ie: FI-5
  25. variable interval
    • only reward correct behavior after an average amount of time has elapsed
    • ie: VI-5
  26. social learning
    • learning from observing other peoples mistake and successes
    • provides potential short-cut to learning
    • AKA observational learning
    • Albert Bandura, bobo dolls & aggression
  27. Albert Bandura
    • bobo dolls experiment
    • adults aggressive towards doll, children watch
    • positive reinforcement, positive punishment, control group
    • for social learning to work need four cognitive processes:
    • -attention, remember, produce, motivation
  28. we are more likely to imitate if
    • socially "successful" individuals
    • individuals who are similar to us
    • when we don't know what to do
  29. 3 pieces of evidence that the mind is not a blank slate...
    • latent learning
    • learning food aversions
    • operational conditioning mishaps
  30. latent learning
    • occurs whenever we learn without any exposure to reinforcement or punishment
    • ie: rat navigating maze
  31. learning food aversions
    • avoiding food
    • ie: rat learning after 1 trial and error to not eat food or he will be shocked every after long delay
    • called the Garcia effect after John Garcia
    • -demonstrates we are preprogrammed to learn certain associations
  32. operational conditioning mishaps
    • sometimes shaping doesn't work, animals can't fight natural inclinaitons
    • ie: trying to teach a chicken to run bases after hitting ball, the chicken chases the ball thinking it is food, a natural reaction

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